Sperm banks are trying to make donating appear masculine to bring men in, scientists say.
In the UK and Australia, clinics are not allowed to pay men to donate sperm, so they try to seduce donors by portraying them as selfless or heroic.
Military recruitment posters, phrases like & # 39; good men & # 39; and & # 39; life changes & # 39 ;, and comparisons with traditional male jobs such as fire fighting have been used.
Researchers said they were surprised & # 39; Clinics were operated by questioning the masculinity of potential donors and said the same was not done to attract women.
This 2015 National Sperm Bank ad shows Lord Kitchener, formerly used as an advertisement for army ads, in addition to sperm, and associated sperm donation with the once noble and patriotic idea of joining the army
Sperm donors Australia, from 2017, challenges people in this advertisement to ask if they are heroic enough to donate sperm
Research by City, University of London and Cardiff University studied advertising campaigns at fertility clinics in the UK and Australia.
Sperm banks in both countries are unable to pay men for their sperm, unlike in the US, where, for example, a company offers up to $ 900 (£ 707) for a donation.
And in 2005, British and Australian donors lost the right to donate their sperm anonymously to prevent the child or mother from ever discovering who they are.
So men must now be willing to become the biological father of a child for free and accept that the child can contact them when it turns 18.
For what seems less attractive than being able to donate anonymously and running away with hundreds of kilos, clinics must come up with new incentives.
And they do this, said Dr. Laetitia Mimoun from City University, using ideas of masculinity to create value for something they can't buy with money.
& # 39; This means that if you give your sperm, you are a real man and you are better than all other men who cannot do that for any reason, & # 39; said Dr. Mimoun.
Aberdeen Fertility Center also uses the image of superhero in everyday clothing in this 2016 advertisement to suggest that men who decide to donate sperm have extraordinary powers
This image of MedicineX in Australia in 2017 associates sperm donation with being a stereotypically masculine task of being a fireman – it said: & # 39; I saved lives but never made one! & # 39;
Sperm donors Australia, on a page from 2016, said & # 39; Good men needed for an important job & # 39 ;, suggesting that donating sperm would make a man a good person
Examples of the uber-masculine advertisements are one from 2015 in which the British army officer, Lord Kitchener, is depicted in the famous & # 39; Your country needs you & # 39; image next to an image of swimming sperm.
Others show men in costumes of superheroes with slogans like & # 39; be a hero & # 39 ;, and someone had a caption pretending to be a fireman saying: & # 39; I saved lives but never made one & # 39 ;
Another way for men to donate to donate was what Dr. Mimoun & # 39; classical altruism & # 39; mentioned – making sperm donation the right, noble thing to do.
One page from the Sperm Donors Australia website showed a smiling man with the head & # 39; Good men needed for an important job & # 39; while another showed a photo of a man giving a piggy-back to a young boy above the caption & # 39; This life changing donation will not cost you a cent & # 39 ;.
This billboard ad from IVF Australia in 2015 shows a sperm donor as a heroic, muscular man, suggesting that these are traits associated with men who donate sperm
This London sperm bank advertisement, from 2016, was among the conscripts' military section because it calls on men to resolve a crisis
In this 2016 advertisement for Monash IVF, the clinic suggests that donating sperm & # 39; life-changing & # 39; can be, making it seem like it is a selfless and generous thing for a man to do
Other examples were posters with athletic men in their underpants or videos in which they cooked barbeques or gave roses to women.
Dr. Mimoun said the marketing strategies had worked.
& # 39; This has helped the UK and Australia industry to a large extent to resolve their donor deficits & # 39 ;, she said.
& # 39; It is very interesting that sperm banks can purchase free sperm as long as they sell it as a way to confirm the masculinity of donors, especially in today's context, when the concept of masculinity is constantly challenged. & # 39;
The research was published in the journal Marketing Theory.
WHAT ARE THE REGIMAL EQUIPMENT RULES OF THE UK?
Sperm donation is common in the UK and is used to help people start a family when they cannot have their own children – for example, if a male partner is infertile, if both parents are women or if the mother is single.
UK clinics are not allowed to pay men to donate sperm, except for up to £ 35 to cover expenses such as travel. More can be offered if accommodation is necessary.
A change in law in 2005 means that men can no longer donate anonymously and that they have to agree with children born from their sperm to find out who they are after they turn 18.
However, it is never required for a donor father to raise the child or pay child benefit.
Sperm donors are usually between 18 and 41 years old, although older donors are allowed in some cases.
A donor visits a fertility clinic once a week for three to six months to make a full donation – with each visit the donor ejaculates in a cup and their sperm is frozen.
Donated sperm cannot be used to create more than 10 families per donor, and the donor may withdraw its consent at any time until the sperm is used.
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