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A & # 39; pet wolf & # 39; puppy of an old Siberian man has given scientists a remarkable modern technological breakthrough

A & # 39; pet wolf & # 39; puppy of an old Siberian man has given scientists a remarkable modern technological breakthrough.

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The 14,300 year old animal has been preserved by the region's permafrost since pre-historic times.

This pleistocene canid, which scientists suspect is domesticated, has given up its RNA-ribonucleic acid sequencing, something that has never been done before in time.

DNA codes for the hard copy of genes and can survive for thousands of years if the conditions are right.

But RNA is of shorter duration and indicates the working copy of a gene.

DNA analysis shows what kind of genes a species had, while RNA explains which genes worked and which were silent.

The animal – pictured in The Siberian Times – is a wolf cub or more likely, scientists believe, a domestic wolf-dog hybrid.

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The owners were perhaps old woolly mammoth hunters.

A & # 39; pet wolf & # 39; puppy of an old Siberian man has given scientists a remarkable modern technological breakthrough

A & # 39; pet wolf & # 39; puppy of an old Siberian man has given scientists a remarkable modern technological breakthrough

It was found in Tumat, in the Sakha Republic, also known as Yakutia, four years ago, the second of two young animals of the same species.

A video shows how mud and dirt from thousands of years were washed from the frozen puppy before a post mortem on the animal in Yakutsk, the capital of the Russian republic of Sakha, where the mummified remains were found on a steep bank of the Syalakh River .

At that time, the South Korean clone guru Hwang Woo-suk tried to extract cell samples to bring the species back to life, but without success.

Dr. Oliver Smith from the University of Copenhagen and his colleagues analyzed the RNA of the liver, cartilage and muscle tissue of the prehistoric animal with more success.

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& # 39; The scientists demonstrated that the RNA determined from the liver tissue of the Tumat puppy was truly representative of the animal's RNA, with many liver-specific transcripts corresponding to more modern samples of both wolves and dogs & # 39 ;, reported sci-news.com

& # 39; The canid transcriptome is the oldest RNA by far the sequence of which has been determined and surpasses the next oldest transcriptome by at least 13,000 years. & # 39;

Dr. Smith said: & # 39; Researchers from the old DNA were more reluctant to try sequences from the old RNA, because it is generally more unstable than DNA and more susceptible to enzymatic degradation.

& # 39; After our recent successes in sequencing old RNA from plant material, however, we speculated that a well-preserved animal sample, frozen in the permafrost, might retain just enough material for sequencing.

& # 39; We are delighted to discover that we have not only found RNA from different tissues, but in some cases the signal was so strong that we could distinguish tissues in a way that makes sense to biological. & # 39;

This pleistocene canid, which scientists suspect is domesticated, has given up its RNA - ribonucleic acid - sequencing, something that up to now has never been performed in time
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This pleistocene canid, which scientists suspect is domesticated, has given up its RNA - ribonucleic acid - sequencing, something that up to now has never been performed in time

This pleistocene canid, which scientists suspect is domesticated, has given up its RNA – ribonucleic acid – sequencing, something that up to now has never been performed in time

DNA codes for the hard copy of genes and can survive for thousands of years if the conditions are right. But RNA is of shorter duration and indicates the working copy of a gene.

DNA codes for the hard copy of genes and can survive for thousands of years if the conditions are right. But RNA is of shorter duration and indicates the working copy of a gene.

DNA codes for the hard copy of genes and can survive for thousands of years if the conditions are right. But RNA is of shorter duration and indicates the working copy of a gene.

DNA analysis shows what kind of genes a species had, while RNA explains which genes worked and which were silent.

DNA analysis shows what kind of genes a species had, while RNA explains which genes worked and which were silent.

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DNA analysis shows what kind of genes a species had, while RNA explains which genes worked and which were silent.

He explained: & # 39; Knowing that RNA acts as an intermediary between DNA and proteins, both of which are more stable, it can be tempting to ask: & # 39; What then? & # 39;

& # 39; But we think the future of the old RNA has great potential.

& # 39; For example, many of the most clinically relevant viruses that exist today have RNA genomes and the RNA stage is often crucial to understanding the complexity and complexity of gene regulation.

& # 39; This can have repercussions when discussing environmental stresses and strains that stimulate evolution. & # 39;

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The detailed findings were published in the journal PLOS Biology.

CAN WE MAKE MAMMOTS?

Male woolly mammoths were about 12 feet (3.5 m) long, while the females were slightly smaller.

They had curved tusks up to 16 feet (5 m) long and their lower abdomen had a coat of shaggy hair up to 3 feet (1 m) long.

Small ears and short tails prevent vital body heat from being lost.

Their tribes had at the end & # 39; two fingers & # 39; to help them pick grass, twigs and other vegetation.

They take their name from the Russian & # 39; mammoth & # 39 ;, or earth mole, because people believed that the animals lived underground and died in contact with light – which explains why they were always found dead and half buried.

It was once believed that their bones belonged to extinct giant races.

Wool-haired mammoths and modern elephants are closely related and share 99.4 percent of their genes.

The two species followed separate evolution paths six million years ago, and humans and chimpanzees went their own way at about the same time.

Woolly mammoths existed with early humans, who hunted for food and used their bones and tusks to make weapons and art.

The most commonly used technique, known as CRISPR / Cas9, enables scientists to make a hybrid animal from the preserved fossils of woolly mammoths and to merge it with cells from a living elephant. The two species share 99.4 percent of their DNA
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The most commonly used technique, known as CRISPR / Cas9, enables scientists to make a hybrid animal from the preserved fossils of woolly mammoths and to merge it with cells from a living elephant. The two species share 99.4 percent of their DNA

The most commonly used technique, known as CRISPR / Cas9, enables scientists to make a hybrid animal from the preserved fossils of woolly mammoths and to merge it with cells from a living elephant. The two species share 99.4 percent of their DNA

The & # 39; extinction & # 39; of the mammoth has become a realistic prospect because of revolutionary gene processing techniques that enable DNA to be accurately selected and inserted into specimens frozen in Siberian ice for millennia.

The most commonly used technique, known as CRISPR / Cas9, has transformed genetic engineering since it was first demonstrated in 2012.

The system makes & # 39; cut and paste & # 39; possibly of DNA strands with an unprecedented precision.

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With this technique, scientists were able to cut and paste preserved mammoth DNA into Asian elephants to make an elephant-mammoth hybrid.

Mammoths roamed 140,000 years through the icy tundra of Europe and North America, disappeared at the end of the Pleistocene period, 10,000 years ago.

They are one of the best understood prehistoric animals in science, because their remains are often not fossilized, but frozen and preserved.

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