White people in England and Wales have the lowest life expectancy of all ethnic groups, a major report finds.
Between 2011 and 2014, whites were also more likely to die from cancer than any other group, according to the first study of its kind by the Office for National Statistics.
The life expectancy of white female Britons was 83.1 years, while men were expected to live 79.7 years.
Black African women had the longest life expectancy at 88.9 years, followed by Bangladeshi women (87.3). Asian men had the highest life expectancy at 84.5 years.
Researchers said higher cancer rates among white people, as well as increased chances of drinking alcohol and smoking, put them on the death list. Cancer deaths were lowest among Indian, Pakistani and other Asian groups.
Low heart disease rates among black people and a higher proportion of recent migrants in some ethnic groups pushed up their life expectancy, as people who migrate are generally healthier than others, the ONS said.
But the experts noted that death rates changed significantly during the Covid pandemic, which disproportionately affected black and Asian ethical groups.
Researchers found that white women lived only 83.1 years, while men lived 79.7 years — the shortest of the 10 ethnic groups studied. Meanwhile, people in the ‘other Asian’ category, including anyone not from the Bangladeshi, Indian and Pakistani groups, had the highest life expectancy of 86.9 years for women and 84.5 years for men.
Among men, mixed race, white and black Caribbean men had the shortest life expectancy
Among women, mixed, white and black Caribbean people had the shortest life expectancy
The ONS used data from the 2011 Census – a self-reported survey of the UK population – and 1.3 million death records from 2011 to 2014 to estimate how long different ethnic groups lived and their causes of death.
The aim of the study was to identify and improve the health of different ethnic groups and to identify where further analysis is needed.
Researchers found that white women lived only 83.1 years, while men lived 79.7 years — the shortest of the 10 ethnic groups studied.
Asian groups had the highest life expectancy – 86.9 years for women and 84.5 years for men – followed by Bangladeshis (87.3 and 81.1), black Africans (88.9 and 83.8) and black Caribbean (84 .6 and 80.7).
This was followed by other black groups (86.8 and 82), Indian people (85.4 and 82.3), mixed race people (83.1 and 79.3).
Men in “other” groups — which the ONS said includes Arab and Chinese people — were predicted to live to be 86.9 years old, while women would live to 84. Pakistani individuals had the second worst death rates, with males up to 84.8 and females up to 82.3.
Researchers concluded that cancer and heart disease are the leading causes of death, together accounting for 61 percent of all male deaths and 53 percent of all female deaths in England and Wales.
But the proportion of deaths for which these conditions are responsible varies among ethnic groups, with the figure jumping to 64.7 percent of all black Caribbean men who died, while falling to 55 percent for the “mixed” ethnic group.
White men were most likely to die from cancer, with 382 per 100,000 deaths from the disease.
Meanwhile, men in the “Asian other” category had half the risk of dying from cancer, with only 175 men per 100,000 deaths.
Among women, white women were most likely to die from cancer (265), followed by mixed race (243), while Indian women were the least affected (144).
Heart disease and other diseases related to blood vessels — such as blood clots — were most likely to kill Bangladheshi (451), mixed race (393), and Indian (381) men and Pakistani (276), mixed race (270), and Indian ( 266) women.
Cancer was most likely to kill white men and women, while certain Asian groups had the lowest risk of the disease
Heart disease and other diseases related to blood vessels – such as blood clots – were most likely to kill Bangladheshi people, resulting in 451 deaths per 100,000 people, followed by mixed race men (393) and Indian (381) and Pakistani ( 276), mixed-race (270) and Indian (266) women.
Covid cut life expectancy by three YEARS in north west England after region had highest death rate in country
High Covid death rates in the Northwest have caused the life expectancy of men and women in the region to fall by a total of 2.8 years, a study finds.
A report published last month by University College London found that a high Covid death rate and deprivation contributed to a decline in life expectancy in the North West region, which was greater than the average in England.
Life expectancy fell last year across England by an average of 1.3 years for men and 0.9 years for women, but fell even more in the North West, where it fell by 1.6 years for men and 1.2 years for women.
The report also found that people in Manchester were 24 percent more likely to die from Covid than the rest of England.
Researchers calculated that 307 men and 195 women per 100,000 in Greater Manchester died of Covid between March 2020 and April 2021.
This was higher than the rest of England where 233.1 men and 142 women per 100,000 died from the virus during the same period.
Professor Sir Michael Marmot, director of the IHE, said the numbers are “overwhelming”.
The area’s high death rates and “particularly harmful long-term economic and social effects” will harm health and widen health disparities unless action is taken, he said.
His report proposes that the government should invest in jobs, housing, local services and education to address these long-term problems.
Brain disease was most likely to kill Bangladeshi men and women, compared to all other groups.
Black Caribbean and “black other” ethnic groups were most at risk of dying from hypertensive disease, a condition associated with high blood pressure.
Deaths from diabetes were lowest in white people, but the condition was most likely to kill Bangladeshi and Pakistani people.
Meanwhile, lung cancer was most likely to kill white, mixed, and Banglaseshi groups, and colon cancer posed the highest risk for both men and black Caribbean women.
White and black Caribbean women were at the highest risk of breast cancer, while prostate cancer was most likely to kill black Caribbean and black African men.
The ONS noted that the findings on life expectancy are higher than previously published data, so the numbers may have been slightly overestimated.
Julie Stanborough, deputy director of health analysis and life events at the ONS, said: ‘Further research is needed to explore the reasons for the differences.
“However, these results reveal important patterns in life expectancy and mortality by ethnic group that are complex, yet consistent with most previous studies.”
Possible explanations for differences may include past migration patterns, the socio-economic composition of the groups, health-related behavior, and clinical and biological factors.
The ONS said black African and “Asian other” groups likely have the highest life expectancies because they contain the highest percentage of more recent migrants. Previous studies showed that migrants are healthier than other groups, it said.
Asian and black people are less likely to engage in harmful behaviors such as smoking and drinking alcohol, the ONS said.
Previous research by Public Health England found that Bangladeshi, Pakistani and black ethnic groups are more likely to live in deprived areas, likely lowering their life expectancy.
The relationship between deprivation and health is “well established,” but more research is needed on how this relationship applies to different ethnic groups, the ONS said.
Researchers noted that the coronavirus pandemic has contrasted with death rates from other causes, as the virus has killed more people from Bangladesh and Pakistan, as well as black Caribbean men.