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What Causes Kidney Stones?

Have you ever had a kidney stone? That is incredibly painful. It seems that you might pass out from the pain. Therefore you must take care of yourself if you are diagnosed with kidney stones. Moreover, if you are prone to kidney stones, you must drink plenty of water. Aim to drink at least 10 to 12 glasses of water a day. It is better to consume plain water. However, you can drink flavored drinks too. 

Kidney stones need to be taken seriously, as they can lead to an obstruction in the ureter that can affect your urine flow. You must attend follow-up visits with the healthcare provider if you have got them. To get an expert opinion, visit the Best Nephrologist in Lahore.

A stone in your kidney is an irregularly-shaped solid mass that can be of variable size. It can be as small as a grain of sand up to the size of a golf ball. Drinking fluids can help eliminate stones, which can take as long as three weeks up to months. 

Types Of Kidney Stones 

Kidney stones form in the kidneys resulting from increased solutes in the body. Those substances can precipitate the formation of kidney stones. Different types of stones are formed in the kidney, which include:

  • Calcium oxalate stone (most common)
  • Uric acid stones
  • Calcium Phosphate stones 
  • Cystine stones (rare)
  • Xanthine stones (rare)

Different types of foods cause the formation of different kinds of stones in the kidneys. The following foods can be a major cause of kidney stones:

Calcium Oxalate Stones 

  • nuts 
  • peanuts with high oxalate content 
  • rhubarb
  • spinach
  • wheat bran

Calcium Phosphate Stones 

Excessive usage of the following food items can cause an increased risk of developing calcium phosphate stones: 

  • beef
  • chicken
  • pork
  • organ meats like liver
  • eggs
  • fish 
  • milk, cheese, and other dairy products

Uric Acid Stones 

Food items with high amounts of natural chemical compounds like purine can cause the formation of uric acid stones in the kidneys. 

  • beef
  • poultry
  • pork
  • fish
  • organ meats such as liver

Other Causes and Risk Factors 

Kidney stones can be a result of several other risk factors. These risk factors include:

  • Inadequate intake of fluids 
  • Consuming a diet that includes substances rich in phosphates, such as meat, fish, beans, and other protein-rich foods
  • A family history of kidney stones
  • Blockage in your urinary tract

Medical Conditions 

Certain medical conditions can also increase the risk of developing stones. These medical conditions can include:

  • Hypercalciuria- high calcium levels in your urine
  • High blood pressure or hypertension
  • Diabetes 
  • Obesity
  • Osteoporosis
  • Gout and cystic fibrosis
  • Kidney cysts- cystic diseases of the kidney
  • Parathyroid disease- hyperparathyroidism
  • Inflammatory bowel disease and chronic diarrhea
  • Some surgical procedures include weight loss surgery or other stomach or intestine surgeries.


Some medications can increase your risk of developing a stone. These medications include:

  • Diuretics- loop diuretics because they increase the excretion of calcium from the kidneys, which can increase the risk of the formation of kidney stones.
  • Calcium-based antacids used to treat osteoporosis
  • Drugs used to treat HIV infections
  • Drugs used to treat seizures, like topiramate
  • Antibiotics like ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone 


Certain foods, as discussed earlier, may also cause an increased risk of developing kidney stones. The most common food items that cause the formation of kidney stones include :

  • Meats and poultry- because of the increased content of animal proteins
  • Sodium- diets high in salt can cause kidney stones, particularly cystine stones
  • Sugars- fructose, sucrose, and corn syrup

The Bottom Line 

To sum up, kidney stones can occur due to several metabolic disorders in the body or, most commonly because of the foods one consumes. Developing good eating habits can significantly lower the risk of the formation of kidney stones. Along with that, drink plenty of water as it helps flush out stones from the kidneys. Sometimes, your healthcare provider might ask you to drink just water to get rid of kidney stones. You must take that seriously and follow the drinking habit.

If you have flank pain or burning in urine, you must visit the healthcare provider. To get an expert opinion, you can visit Dr. Aijaz Ahmed.