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Using quantum technology to constrain new particles

Kwantumtechnologie gebruiken om nieuwe deeltjes te beperken129Xe-based amplifier, which generates an effective magnetic field Beff read by 87Rb spins. (b) The gain factor 43.5 ± 0.8 is calibrated at frequencies of approximately 9.00, 9.50, 10.00, 10.50, 11.00 Hz. (c) The enhanced magnetic sensitivity reaches 22.3 ft/Hz1/2 at resonance frequency 10.00 Hz. Credit: Physical Assessment Letters (2022). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.129.051801″ width=”800″ height=”530″/>

Magnetic field amplification of the spin sensor. (a) Principle of using the spin sensor to search for exotic interactions. The signal of the pseudomagnetic field is amplified by the 129Xe based amplifier, generates an effective magnetic field Beff read by 87Rb is running. (b) The gain factor 43.5 ± 0.8 is calibrated at frequencies of approximately 9.00, 9.50, 10.00, 10.50, 11.00 Hz. (c) Enhanced magnetic sensitivity reaches 22.3fT/Hz1/2 at resonance frequency 10.00 Hz. Credit: Physical Assessment Letters (2022). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.129.051801

Undiscovered axions and axion-like particles may hold the key to explaining some of our universe’s deepest puzzles, such as dark matter and charge parity violations in strong interactions. Several recent theories have predicted that the masses of axions are likely to be within the well-motivated “axion window” (0.01 meV-1 meV). However, existing laboratory studies and astrophysical observations usually look for the axions outside the axion window.

The research team led by Prof. Peng Xinhua of the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, in collaboration with Prof. Dmitry Budker from the Helmholtz Institute in Mainz, used a recently developed spin-based amplifier to generate hypothetical axions within the axion window, providing a way to explore promising parameter space. The study is published in Physical Assessment Letters.

The exchange of axions between fermions results in an exotic dipole-dipole interaction that can be detected by laboratory experiments. In this work, the researchers used a large collection of polarized rubidium-87 electrons and polarized xeon-129 nuclear spins as two types of fermions. The exchange of axions allows the rubidium to generate the exotic signal on the xeon core spins, and then the polarized xeon-129 core spins are used to resonantly search for the signal.

In particular, the researchers showed that the long-lived xeon-129 spins act as a quantum preamplifier, which can amplify the exotic signal by a factor of more than 40. Using such a technique, they put the strictest constraints on neutron-electron coupling mediated by axions for the axion mass of 0.03 meV to 1 meV within the axion window.

This work provides a sensitive quantum technique to realize the indirect axion searches with a recently developed spin-based amplifier, which is a substantial improvement in sensitivity in a theoretically interesting mass region for axions. The spin-based amplifier scheme, as a new implementation, expands the possibilities of spin measurements and can be further applied to resonantly search for hypothetical particles outside the Standard Model, such as new spin-1 dark photons.


New spin enhancer speeds up search for dark matter


More information:
Yuanhong Wang et al, Boundaries of Axions and Axion-like particles within the Axion window using a spin-based enhancer, Physical Assessment Letters (2022). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.129.051801

Provided by the Chinese Academy of Sciences


Quote: Using Quantum Technology to Confine New Particles (2022, July 29) retrieved July 29, 2022 from https://phys.org/news/2022-07-quantum-technology-constrain-particles.html

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