Thousands of & # 039; enemy aliens & # 039; including the Nazis were locked in Australia during the war

In this extraordinary image, the Adelaide German Club is decorated with swastikas and an Australian flag to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Adolf Hitler on April 20, 1939, just five months before the outbreak of World War II. Nazism had some strong supporters in South Australia

Thousands of men, women and children considered threats to national security because of their ancestry or political beliefs were locked up in Australia during both world wars.

During the First World War, civilians were detained and taken to remote places to be held against their will in what authorities then called concentration camps.

In the Second World War, these facilities became known as internment camps and their purpose was further expanded: Australians with Japanese, German and Italian names stayed behind the barbed wire only for the place where their ancestors were born.

Most internees during World War II were ordinary "civilian enemy aliens", citizens of countries with which Australia was at war, but some were local Nazis and members of radical organizations, including the First Australian Movement.

In this extraordinary image, the Adelaide German Club is decorated with swastikas and an Australian flag to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Adolf Hitler on April 20, 1939, just five months before the outbreak of World War II. Nazism had some strong supporters in South Australia

In this extraordinary image, the Adelaide German Club is decorated with swastikas and an Australian flag to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Adolf Hitler on April 20, 1939, just five months before the outbreak of World War II. Nazism had some strong supporters in South Australia

These men are making Nazi greetings on the steps of the still-popular Hotel Carrington in Katoomba, in the Blue Mountains of New South Wales, in the 1930s. Nazism had supporters before and during World War II in many parts of Australia, not only within the German communities

These men are making Nazi greetings on the steps of the still-popular Hotel Carrington in Katoomba, in the Blue Mountains of New South Wales, in the 1930s. Nazism had supporters before and during World War II in many parts of Australia, not only within the German communities

These men are making Nazi greetings on the steps of the still-popular Hotel Carrington in Katoomba, in the Blue Mountains of New South Wales, in the 1930s. Nazism had supporters before and during World War II in many parts of Australia, not only within the German communities

This table from the 1930s shows how the organization of the Nazi Party in Australasia (left) imitated the party structure in Germany (right), with power flowing from the top

This table from the 1930s shows how the organization of the Nazi Party in Australasia (left) imitated the party structure in Germany (right), with power flowing from the top

This table from the 1930s shows how the organization of the Nazi Party in Australasia (left) imitated the party structure in Germany (right), with power flowing from the top

This 1916 poster produced by the Recruitment Committee of the State of South Australia took advantage of the anxiety of Australians about the threat from Germany to convince men to join the armed forces.

This 1916 poster produced by the Recruitment Committee of the State of South Australia took advantage of the anxiety of Australians about the threat from Germany to convince men to join the armed forces.

This 1916 poster produced by the Recruitment Committee of the State of South Australia took advantage of the anxiety of Australians about the threat from Germany to convince men to join the armed forces.

At the beginning of World War II, "aliens" over the age of 16 had to register at the local police station and report regularly to foreign registration officers.

Non-compliance led to a rapid loss of freedom and, as the war progressed, the restrictions meant that foreigners could not own a car, a camera or even a carrier pigeon without a special permit.

The Nazis in Australia were only a small group, but they had a notable presence during the interwar years. The membership of a Nazi or fascist organization was a prima facie cause for internment.

The story of these inmates and the camps that housed them was told in a new book called Captured Lives: Australia's Wartime Internment Camps by Peter Monteath, professor of History at Flinders University in Adelaide.

"It's a story that has largely disappeared from the public consciousness," said Professor Monteath.

Local police and military authorities in the city of Loxton, in the Riverland region of southern Australia, work together to reunite the "enemy aliens" of the local German community in 1914.

Local police and military authorities in the city of Loxton, in the Riverland region of southern Australia, work together to reunite the "enemy aliens" of the local German community in 1914.

Local police and military authorities in the city of Loxton, in the Riverland region of southern Australia, work together to reunite the "enemy aliens" of the local German community in 1914.

These prisoners are ventilating their beds in the Torrens concentration camp near Adelaide during the First World War. Internee Paul Dubotzki, a professional photographer, was allowed to keep his camera equipment and even operated a photo studio inside the camp.

These prisoners are ventilating their beds in the Torrens concentration camp near Adelaide during the First World War. Internee Paul Dubotzki, a professional photographer, was allowed to keep his camera equipment and even operated a photo studio inside the camp.

These prisoners are ventilating their beds in the Torrens concentration camp near Adelaide during the First World War. Internee Paul Dubotzki, a professional photographer, was allowed to keep his camera equipment and even operated a photo studio inside the camp.

Netizens queuing for water rations at the Torrens internment camp in South Australia in 1915. Behind the camera was the German Paul Dubotzki whose photographs provided a record of camp conditions in South Australia and New South Wales during the first World War

Netizens queuing for water rations at the Torrens internment camp in South Australia in 1915. Behind the camera was the German Paul Dubotzki whose photographs provided a record of camp conditions in South Australia and New South Wales during the first World War

Netizens queuing for water rations at the Torrens internment camp in South Australia in 1915. Behind the camera was the German Paul Dubotzki whose photographs provided a record of camp conditions in South Australia and New South Wales during the first World War

Professor Monteath said he said it was "difficult to quantify" how many Nazis were in Australia in the 1930s and 1940s, "but they certainly existed."

"In the German community, no doubt, there was a number that was clearly pro-Nazi," he said. "And then in the Italian community there was the same, there were fascist sympathizers.

"Even in the Australian community there were people whose politics were well and truly on the right."

In the German community, no doubt, there was a number that was clearly pro-Nazi.

While most Australians would associate concentration camps with the Holocaust, the phrase once again generally meant places where a government limited the citizens it did not like.

"It's a bit jarring, but that was a common terminology in World War I," said Professor Monteath.

The internment camps in both major conflicts were handled by the army and its occupiers in many aspects treated as prisoners of war.

The concentration camps were established during the First World War in the abandoned prisons of the 19th century, including Berrima and Trial Bay in New South Wales. The largest facility was in Holsworthy, in the southwest of Sydney.

The internees were also housed in prisons, including Long Bay, in Sydney, during World War II, as well as in makeshift camps in several army barracks.

As the war dragged on, the first camps became too small and the government opened specially designed facilities at Rushworth in Victoria, Loveday in South Australia, Harvey in Western Australia and Cowra and Hay in New South Wales.

The imposing Trial Bay civil prison in New South Wales was not used since 1903 when it became the home of some of the most privileged inmates during the First World War. Photographer Karl Lehmann spent the first period of his internment at Rottnest Island in Western Australia

The imposing Trial Bay civil prison in New South Wales was not used since 1903 when it became the home of some of the most privileged inmates during the First World War. Photographer Karl Lehmann spent the first period of his internment at Rottnest Island in Western Australia

The imposing Trial Bay civil prison in New South Wales was not used since 1903 when it became the home of some of the most privileged inmates during the First World War. Photographer Karl Lehmann spent the first period of his internment at Rottnest Island in Western Australia

The in-house photographer Karl Lehmann captures a relaxed moment in Trial Bay in New South Wales in 1917. A group of interns gathers before the improvised Beach Cafe of the camp.

The in-house photographer Karl Lehmann captures a relaxed moment in Trial Bay in New South Wales in 1917. A group of interns gathers before the improvised Beach Cafe of the camp.

The in-house photographer Karl Lehmann captures a relaxed moment in Trial Bay in New South Wales in 1917. A group of interns gathers before the improvised Beach Cafe of the camp.

The title of this letter, "Frohliche Weihnachten" (Merry Christmas), may seem priceless, since the Liverpool camp was not a place of much joy. It is not the use of the concentration camp & # 39;

The title of this letter, "Frohliche Weihnachten" (Merry Christmas), may seem priceless, since the Liverpool camp was not a place of much joy. It is not the use of the concentration camp & # 39;

The title of this letter, "Frohliche Weihnachten" (Merry Christmas), may seem priceless, since the Liverpool camp was not a place of much joy. It is not the use of the concentration camp & # 39;

The enemy fighters captured abroad were also imprisoned in Australian camps along with inmates in places like Cowra and Hay.

Professor Monteath said that the camps in both wars were deliberately located where they would remain almost invisible.

"The idea at the time was that these inmates would be hiding," he said. & # 39; The circumstances were such that people at that time did not know much about them, what was happening to them.

"Many of the camps were also in the middle of nowhere and many of these people left Australia, whether they wanted to or not, because they left Australia, their stories are not known here.

Captured Lives covers more than 30 camps and the stories of those inmates who spent years inside their fences and walls.

It describes the impact, both negative and positive, of the internment of incarcerated persons and the effects on the rural communities that surround the camps.

SMS prisoners of war Emden in front of his hut in the internment camp of Berrima in New South Wales in 1917. Most of the people interned in Australia in World War I were civilians, but the men of the Imperial Navy ship Emden, crippled by HMAS Sydney, rare exceptions

SMS prisoners of war Emden in front of his hut in the internment camp of Berrima in New South Wales in 1917. Most of the people interned in Australia in World War I were civilians, but the men of the Imperial Navy ship Emden, crippled by HMAS Sydney, rare exceptions

SMS prisoners of war Emden in front of his hut in the internment camp of Berrima in New South Wales in 1917. Most of the people interned in Australia in World War I were civilians, but the men of the Imperial Navy ship Emden, crippled by HMAS Sydney, rare exceptions

These internees were held behind barbed wire at the Holsworthy camp in southwestern Sydney during World War I and beyond. Holsworthy was the largest camp during the war

These internees were held behind barbed wire at the Holsworthy camp in southwestern Sydney during World War I and beyond. Holsworthy was the largest camp during the war

These internees were held behind barbed wire at the Holsworthy camp in southwestern Sydney during World War I and beyond. Holsworthy was the largest camp during the war

The Holsworthy concentration camp in 1917. The majority of the internees were from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, personnel from German companies temporarily living in Australia, crews of ships trapped in Australian ports and native Australians and natives of German origin

The Holsworthy concentration camp in 1917. The majority of the internees were from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, personnel from German companies temporarily living in Australia, crews of ships trapped in Australian ports and native Australians and natives of German origin

The Holsworthy concentration camp in 1917. The majority of the internees were from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, personnel from German companies temporarily living in Australia, crews of ships trapped in Australian ports and native Australians and natives of German origin

"People were affected by internment in different ways," said Professor Monteath.

"Some people might have been inclined to give up hope and others, despite the circumstances, would still find something positive in the experience and perhaps make them more resilient because of what happened."

Civilian internees can not be forced to work, but many choose it for a small salary.

"They were the enemy, so to speak, or they had been, but in many cases they went to work on farms and established close relationships," said Professor Monteath. "There were these friendships and relationships that emerged from a situation that started differently."

Surprising photographs, many taken by inmates, document the sometimes harsh conditions and small comforts they could create.

Captured Lives also analyzes the government policies that led to more than 20,000 people losing their freedom in Australia during the two world wars.

A large group of Indonesian children interned with their parents is out of school at Prisoner of War No. 12 and internment camp at Cowra in New South Wales in September 1943.

A large group of Indonesian children interned with their parents is out of school at Prisoner of War No. 12 and internment camp at Cowra in New South Wales in September 1943.

A large group of Indonesian children interned with their parents is out of school at Prisoner of War No. 12 and internment camp at Cowra in New South Wales in September 1943.

Japanese interns of Hay in New South Wales who were loaded on army trucks to be transported to prisoner of war n. ° 14 and internment camp at Loveday in South Australia in March 1943.

Japanese interns of Hay in New South Wales who were loaded on army trucks to be transported to prisoner of war n. ° 14 and internment camp at Loveday in South Australia in March 1943.

Japanese interns of Hay in New South Wales who were loaded on army trucks to be transported to prisoner of war n. ° 14 and internment camp at Loveday in South Australia in March 1943.

"Civilians from enemy nations, even if they were born in Australia, were suspects and locked in internment camps," says the book's editor.

"Many had been Australia's long-term residents, naturalized and married, and raising families.

The German-born brewer, Edmund Resch, was 70 years old when he was interned at the Holsworthy camp in 1917. Resch had been a generous contributor to the Australian war effort, but he was locked up anyway. Some drinkers gave up Resch during the First World War in a wrong patriotic gesture

The German-born brewer, Edmund Resch, was 70 years old when he was interned at the Holsworthy camp in 1917. Resch had been a generous contributor to the Australian war effort, but he was locked up anyway. Some drinkers gave up Resch during the First World War in a wrong patriotic gesture

The German-born brewer, Edmund Resch, was 70 years old when he was interned at the Holsworthy camp in 1917. Resch had been a generous contributor to the Australian war effort, but he was locked up anyway. Some drinkers gave up Resch during the First World War in a wrong patriotic gesture

"They had contributed financially and often brought new skills and knowledge to the nation.

"To keep good memories and have cultural ties to their country of origin did not annul their loyalty to their adopted country, for them, being interned was disconcerting."

The lives of the inmates varied from one camp to another and the conditions depended on the geographical location, the climate, the composition of the population and the officer in charge.

Captured Lives includes 40 case studies focusing on particular and individual events.

Among those stories is the German-born brewer Edmund Resch, an Australian naturalized and resident of the country for more than 50 years.

Despite contributing generously to the war effort, Resch was interned in 1917 at the age of 70 and died six years later.

The anti-German sentiment had led some drinkers to stop buying Resch as a wrong sign of patriotism during the war, but the beer that bears his name is still made today.

German internees in the Berrima camp in New South Wales gathered all the material they could to build structures along the banks of the Berrima River. While its buildings were necessarily modest, this 1917 building was given the grand name of Villa Heideheim.

German internees in the Berrima camp in New South Wales gathered all the material they could to build structures along the banks of the Berrima River. While its buildings were necessarily modest, this 1917 building was given the grand name of Villa Heideheim.

German internees in the Berrima camp in New South Wales gathered all the material they could to build structures along the banks of the Berrima River. While its buildings were necessarily modest, this 1917 building was given the grand name of Villa Heideheim.

Professor Monteath said that some German businessmen were reported as enemy agents by commercial rivals and that Resch was likely to be the victim of such cruelty.

"There were clearly quite spurious reasons to admit him," he said. "There were so many remarkable people there."

Kurt Wiese was a German POW who began to draw local fauna while held in Holsworthy and fields of the Bay of Judgment during World War I.

After the war, he became a prolific book illustrator whose work appeared in The Jungle Book, by Rudyard Kipling, and Twenty Thousand Leagues Under The Sea, by Jules Verne.

The German dentist Reinhard Waldsax was interned in Great Britain and sent to Australia aboard the Dunera to stay at the Hay and Loveday camps during World War II.

While incarcerated, Waldsax made hundreds of dental fillings and extractions with the equipment he himself devised, including a table screw turned into a chisel and a self-made wooden mallet.

Captured Lives presents sketches and watercolors made by inmates that capture first-hand the conditions and life in the camps. Some photographers were also allowed to keep their cameras and camps documented from the perspective of an inmate.

Prisoners of the German army in the custody of Australian soldiers in the Western Desert during the North African Campaign around 1941. Some of those prisoners were transported to Australia

Prisoners of the German army in the custody of Australian soldiers in the Western Desert during the North African Campaign around 1941. Some of those prisoners were transported to Australia

Prisoners of the German army in the custody of Australian soldiers in the Western Desert during the North African Campaign around 1941. Some of those prisoners were transported to Australia

Italian soldiers surrender to an Australian man who handles his .303 Lee-Enfield rifle with a fixed bayonet during the Allied capture of the Italian fortress of Bardia in Libya in January 1941. Many Italian prisoners of war were sent to Australia where they were interned by the time in camps

Italian soldiers surrender to an Australian man who handles his .303 Lee-Enfield rifle with a fixed bayonet during the Allied capture of the Italian fortress of Bardia in Libya in January 1941. Many Italian prisoners of war were sent to Australia where they were interned by the time in camps

Italian soldiers surrender to an Australian man who handles his .303 Lee-Enfield rifle with a fixed bayonet during the Allied capture of the Italian fortress of Bardia in Libya in January 1941. Many Italian prisoners of war were sent to Australia where they were interned by the time in camps

At the outbreak of World War I, only those residents born in countries at war with Australia were considered enemy aliens.

That definition was later expanded to include naturalized British subjects from enemy nations, descendants of Australian immigrants born in enemy nations and others believed to pose a threat to the nation's security.

Nearly 7,000 people were interned in Australia during the First World War, about 4,500 of which were German or of German descent. After the war most of them were deported.

During World War II, Australia accepted internees from other countries that were held for the duration of the conflict, and also locked up residents who are considered to be able to help the nation's enemies.

While the first internees had been identified as specific threats, a large number of law-abiding Japanese and then Germans were imprisoned. More than 20 percent of all Italian residents in Australia had lost their freedom at the end of the war.

This is a lumberjack party from the Trial Bay camp in New South Wales during World War II. The armed soldiers are on the extreme left and right. In general, civilian inmates could not be made to work, but many welcomed the opportunity to go out and do some physical activity.

This is a lumberjack party from the Trial Bay camp in New South Wales during World War II. The armed soldiers are on the extreme left and right. In general, civilian inmates could not be made to work, but many welcomed the opportunity to go out and do some physical activity.

This is a lumberjack party from the Trial Bay camp in New South Wales during World War II. The armed soldiers are on the extreme left and right. In general, civilian inmates could not be made to work, but many welcomed the opportunity to go out and do some physical activity.

This map shows the main internment camps and prisoners of war in all Australian states during World War II. The figures in parentheses, when appropriate, are the official camp numbers

This map shows the main internment camps and prisoners of war in all Australian states during World War II. The figures in parentheses, when appropriate, are the official camp numbers

This map shows the main internment camps and prisoners of war in all Australian states during World War II. The figures in parentheses, when appropriate, are the official camp numbers

At the peak of the policy in 1942, there were more than 12,000 people interned in Australia.

Around 7,000 residents, including 1,500 British citizens, as well as 8,000 people arrested by allies abroad were arrested between 1939 and 1945.

Australia also accepted internships, mostly German and Japanese, from countries and territories such as Great Britain, Palestine, Iran, New Zealand and New Caledonia.

Among the few genuine prisoners of war in Australia during the First World War, survivors of the crew of the German light cruiser SMS Emden, who was paralyzed by HMAS Sydney in front of the Cocos Islands in November 1914.

While most of the prisoners of war spent their time quietly waiting for the end of the war, there were several notable attempts to escape, including one by Theodor Detmers.

The Dhurringile mansion near Tatura in Victoria was used for a time to accommodate internal civilians, but later housed German military officers, including the survivors of the raider merchant Kormoran, who was sunk by HMAS Sydney off Western Australia in November 1941 .

The Dhurringile mansion near Tatura in Victoria was used for a time to accommodate internal civilians, but later housed German military officers, including the survivors of the raider merchant Kormoran, who was sunk by HMAS Sydney off Western Australia in November 1941 .

The Dhurringile mansion near Tatura in Victoria was used for a time to accommodate internal civilians, but later housed German military officers, including the survivors of the raider merchant Kormoran, who was sunk by HMAS Sydney off Western Australia in November 1941 .

These German officers were survivors of the sinking of the Kormoran by HMAS Sydney versus Western Australia in November 1941. They were held in Dhurringile prison in Victoria.

These German officers were survivors of the sinking of the Kormoran by HMAS Sydney versus Western Australia in November 1941. They were held in Dhurringile prison in Victoria.

These German officers were survivors of the sinking of the Kormoran by HMAS Sydney versus Western Australia in November 1941. They were held in Dhurringile prison in Victoria.

Knives recovered in and around the Japanese section of the Cowra POW camp in New South Wales after hundreds of prisoners tried to escape in August 1944. Four Australian soldiers, one member of the Volunteer Defense Force and 234 prisoners they were killed

Knives recovered in and around the Japanese section of the Cowra POW camp in New South Wales after hundreds of prisoners tried to escape in August 1944. Four Australian soldiers, one member of the Volunteer Defense Force and 234 prisoners they were killed

Knives recovered in and around the Japanese section of the Cowra POW camp in New South Wales after hundreds of prisoners tried to escape in August 1944. Four Australian soldiers, one member of the Volunteer Defense Force and 234 prisoners they were killed

Detmers, who had captained the German raider merchant Kormoran when he sank the second HMAS Sydney off Western Australia in November 1941, helped dig a tunnel in the Dhurringile prison in Victoria.

That freedom was short-lived a week after the January 1945 escape, when Detmers raised the suspicions of a shopkeeper when he tried to buy supplies because he "spoke English too well to be Australian."

Cientos de prisioneros japoneses tomaron por asalto las vallas de Cowra en agosto de 1944 en lo que se conoce como Cowra Breakout. Cuatro soldados australianos, un miembro del Cuerpo de Defensa Voluntario y 234 prisioneros murieron.

Ningún prisionero en ningún campamento australiano logró escapar con éxito.

Muchos internados de la Segunda Guerra Mundial -particularmente italianos- fueron liberados antes de la conclusión del conflicto y los de origen europeo pudieron permanecer en Australia después de que cesaron las hostilidades.

La mayoría de los internos de origen japonés fueron 'repatriados' a su tierra natal en 1946.

Captured Lives: Australia's Wartime Internment Camps de Peter Monteath ya está disponible a través de NLA Publishing. PVP $ 39.99.

Captured Lives: Campamentos de internamiento en tiempo de guerra de Australia por Peter Monteath, NLA Publishing

Captured Lives: Campamentos de internamiento en tiempo de guerra de Australia por Peter Monteath, NLA Publishing

Captured Lives: Campamentos de internamiento en tiempo de guerra de Australia por Peter Monteath, NLA Publishing

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