The victims of Jack the Ripper's murder may not have been prostitutes, according to one historian.
Dr. Hallie Rubenhold has argued that the "sexist" attitudes of police officers at the time and researchers in the 130 years since have led to inaccurate beliefs about women who were murdered.
The historian, who is writing a story of the five known victims, Mary Ann Nichols, Annie Chapman, Elizabeth Stride, Catherine Eddowes and Mary Jane Kelly, said women had working-class jobs as maids and laundresses.
The Ripper killed his victims in Whitechapel, east of London, between September and November 1888, but his identity has never been discovered.
The victims of Jack the Ripper, represented in a contemporary illustration, may not have been prostitutes, according to a historian who blamed the sexism of police and investigators
Dr. Rubenhold, whose book will be called The Five, said investigators had "fixed" themselves on the Ripper, but never thought about who the women were, the Sunday Telegraph reported.
She said: "We glorify the Ripper, we have a whole industry around him, a fascination for him, an unsolved murder mystery for 130 years.
"We have never questioned the orthodoxy of the nineteenth century: the world in which they were murdered was a world in which women were not respected or treated as second-class citizens."
One of the women had run a coffee shop in Poplar with her husband, while another lived in the residence of a friend of the Prince of Wales, he said.
Misogyny and sexism "are very deep" in the Ripper stories and the women involved had been "dehumanized" for 130 years, he said.
On Twitter, he said that Mary Jane Kelly had worked in sex and that it was "uncertain" if Elizabeth Stride had been soliciting the night she was killed, but the other three were not prostitutes.
Mary Ann Nichols (left), believed to be the first victim of Jack the Ripper, along with Annie Chapman
Mary Jane Kelly and Elizabeth Stride were also killed by Jack the Ripper on his 1888 spree
Last month, the claim sparked a dispute with fellow historian Paul Begg, who wrote a definitive story of Jack the Ripper.
He said: "I do not care if he says that not all of them were prostitutes when their book is published and that their evidence can be evaluated, but to do so before that is to express their opinion as if it were a fact."
Dr. Rubenhold replied: "I am free to publicize my books and my findings before they are published. I am behaving professionally.
& # 39; Prediction: no matter what appears in my book, Paul Begg will find the cause to break it and report it. & # 39;
The first of the five canonical victims, Mary Nichols was found dead on the afternoon of August 31, 1888, at an entrance on Buck's Row, Whitechapel. She had been disemboweled.
The mutilated corpse of Annie Chapman was found in the backyard of 29 Hanbury Street at 6 in the morning, just a week later, on September 8, after the murderer left with his uterus.
An illustration shows the discovery of the mutilated body of Catherine Eddowes in 1888
Elizabeth Stride was found dead on September 30, at Dutfield's Yard, across from Berner Street.
It is believed that the Ripper could have been interrupted while cutting his throat, since the rest of his body had not been touched.
Later on the same day, the body of Catherine Eddowes was found in Miter Square in the city of London, with her.Terus and kidney removed and his cheeks broken.
Mary Kelly, who was the last known victim of Jack the Ripper, was found in her room at Miller & s Court, across from Dorset Street on November 9.
Victoria's police suspected that the Ripper was a butcher, but they could never track him.
Last year, a book claimed that an apparent "confession" found under the floorboards of a Liverpool cotton merchant was genuine.
Memories include the line: "I give my name that everyone knows about me, so history does say it, what love can do to a born gentleman, Sincerely, Jack The Ripper.
But critics questioned how the book was found, supposedly belonging to businessman James Maybrick, and whether the claims were genuine.
Police discover the body of one of the victims of Jack the Ripper, probably Catherine Eddowes
A page from the illustrated Police News page covering the Jack the Ripper murders
WHO WAS JACK THE RIPPER?
It is believed that Jack the Ripper killed at least five young women in Whitechapel, east of London, between September and November 1888, but was never captured.
Numerous people have been accused of being the serial killer.
At that time, the police suspected that the Ripper must have been a butcher, due to the way their victims were killed and the fact that they were discovered near the shipyards, where the meat was brought to the city.
There are several alleged links between the murderer and royalty. First there is Sir William Gull, the royal physician. Many have accused him of helping to get rid of the bodies of the alleged prostitutes, while others claim that he was Ripper himself.
A book has named the surgeon of Queen Victoria, Sir John Williams, as the infamous murderer. He had surgery in Whitechapel at that time.
Another theory links the murders with the grandson of Queen Victoria, Prince Albert Victor, the Duke of Clarence.
At one point, the cotton merchant James Maybrick was the number one suspect, after the publication of some of his diaries that seemed to suggest that he was the killer.
Some believe that the newspaper is a fake, although no one has been able to suggest who falsified it.
Other suspects include Montague John Druitt, a lawyer born in Dorset. He committed suicide in the Thames seven weeks after the last murder.
George Chapman, also known as Severyn Klosowski, is also a suspect after he poisoned three of his wives and was hanged in 1903.
Another suspect by the police was Aaron Kosminski. He was admitted to Colney Hatch Lunatic Asylum and died there.
Dr. Thomas Neill Cream poisoned four London prostitutes with strychnine and was hanged in 1892.
Some of the strangest links include Lewis Carroll, author of the books of Alice in Wonderland, who taught at Christ Church until 1881, who was at the forefront of the Ripper murder scene.
Winston Churchill's father, Lord Randolph Churchill, has also been named a potential suspect.
Crime writer Patricia Cornwell believes she has been deciphered & # 39; the case when unearthing evidence that confirms Walter Sickert, an influential artist, as the main suspect. His theories have not been generally accepted.
Author William J Perring raised the possibility that Jack the Ripper really is "Julia", a Salvation Army soldier.
In The Seduction of Mary Kelly, her novel about the life and times of the last victim suggests that Jack the Ripper was actually a woman.