The U.S. Army UU. Creates a tissue that neutralizes nerve gases such as sarin and makes them useless
What are nerve agents?
Nerve agents are a group of artificial substances that target a certain part of the body's nervous system.
It is known that chemical weapons that use nerve agents such as tabun, sarin and VX kill people with horrific efficiency.
Only 10 mg of VX, for example, can kill a human in just 10 minutes. A smaller dose can take up to an hour to be lethal.
Any nerve agent can affect a person through the skin, breathing, ingestion or the three routes, depending on the substance and how it is used.
Special pumps can arm agents like a liquid, firing them like a breathable gas.
A nervous agent attack causes a disconnection between the brain and organs, which causes the lungs to begin to close and cause uncontrollable vomiting, diarrhea and foam in the mouth. The photo is a victim of a nervous agent attack in Damascus in 2013
What effect does it have on the body?
One of the scariest things about nerve agents is that you may never see them, hear or smell.
The first thing that will happen to you is that your mucous membranes will go into overdrive.
This means that your mouth will create more saliva, begin to drool, your eyes will begin to cry and your nose will run. You are likely to start foaming at the mouth.
Your pupils will become punctures and will not react to light. You can lose your vision completely, or at least it will become blurred.
Quickly there will be an important disconnect between your brain and your body. He cannot move and can be paralyzed.
You will find it difficult to breathe and you are likely to vomit violently and start sweating everywhere.
You will have seizures, uncontrollable bowel movements, an erratic heart rate and excruciating pain everywhere.
This is because the chemicals block the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which breaks down a key messaging signal in our muscles that tells them to stop contracting.
This means that the body's muscles cannot relax, causing seizures and death from suffocation due to a loss of control of the respiratory muscles.
The chemical messenger, known as acetylcholine, also builds up in the brain and causes it to shut down quickly.
At sufficiently high doses, a nerve agent can kill in 10 minutes.
The photo is a Haz-Mat team of the Tokyo Fire Department after the Sarin attack of the Tokyo subway in 1995, which killed 13 people.
What is the antidote?
Nerve agents are harmful to the human body because they cause an accumulation of acetylcholine.
This causes a constant activation of the neurons and, therefore, a constant contraction of the muscles.
These spasms can be treated with antidotes that turn off the acetylcholine receptors in the brain.
Usually, two antidotes (atropine and pralidoxime chloride) are used that interfere with the binding of acetylcholine to neuronal receptors.
These antidotes work in exactly the opposite way to antidepressants that stimulate the absorption of neurotransmitters through the synapse.
Chemicals such as Prozac stimulate the transmission of neurons responsible for feelings of happiness (such as dopamine and serotonin) through these receptors.
For them to work, these medications must be administered immediately, within a few minutes of exposure.
What happens if you are exposed to a nerve agent but do not die?
People who have been exposed to very small levels may not die, but will suffer problems for life.
Previous research has revealed a disconcerting series of debilitating conditions associated with exposure to nerve gases, including chronic fatigue, widespread pain, memory problems, skin rashes, gastrointestinal and respiratory difficulties.
Many of these problems can persist for decades.
Even in small doses, permanent severe brain or nerve damage is possible. However, the exact long-term effects of nerve agents remain uncertain.
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