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The stone tools of a cave in Siberia reveal the epic journey of Neanderthals from Europe 59,000 years ago

The stone tools found in a cave in Siberia reveal that nomadic Neanderthals made an epic journey over 1,800 miles from Europe about 59,000 years ago.

The analysis of the tools found that they were formed in the same way as those used by Neanderthals in Eastern Europe, rather than those found elsewhere in Siberia.

Given this, the researchers have concluded that there were two separate long-distance migrations of Neanderthals to Siberia, separated by approximately 40,000 years.

The findings reinforce the developing vision of Neanderthals as sophisticated people who were skilled and capable survivors of such trips, the team said.

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The stone tools found in a cave in Siberia reveal that nomadic Neanderthals made an epic journey over 1,800 miles from eastern Europe about 59,000 years ago. In the picture, the tools of mycoquial style unearthed from the Chagyrskaya cave in the foothills of Altai

The stone tools found in a cave in Siberia reveal that nomadic Neanderthals made an epic journey over 1,800 miles from eastern Europe about 59,000 years ago. In the picture, the tools of mycoquial style unearthed from the Chagyrskaya cave in the foothills of Altai

Researchers have concluded that there were two separate long-distance migrations of Neanderthals to Siberia, separated by approximately 40,000 years.

Researchers have concluded that there were two separate long-distance migrations of Neanderthals to Siberia, separated by approximately 40,000 years.

Researchers have concluded that there were two separate long-distance migrations of Neanderthals to Siberia, separated by approximately 40,000 years.

Since its first excavation in 2007, the Chagyrskaya Cave, which is located in the foothills of the Altai Mountains in Siberia, has provided 74 Neanderthal fossils, some 90,000 stone artifacts and the remains of plants and animals.

In his study, the archaeologist Kseniya Kolobova of the Russian Academy of Sciences and his colleagues analyzed more than 3,000 stone tools in the cave.

They used a technique called optical dating, which measures the last time the individual quartz grains were exposed to sunlight, to determine when different sediments, artifacts and fossils were deposited in the cave.

The researchers also rebuilt the environmental conditions of that time based on the remains of animals and plants, suggesting that the weather was cold and dry and that Neanderthals would have hunted bison and horses to survive.

The team’s analysis revealed that the tools, dating from approximately 59,000-49,000 years ago, closely resemble the so-called ‘Micochian’ tools used by Neanderthals in Eastern Europe, about 1,864 kilometers west of the Chagyrskaya cave.

The name of the La Micoque excavation site in Dordogne, southwest of France, this stone age industry was characterized by clearly asymmetric two-sided tools.

“Their distinctive stone tools are dead rings for those thousands of miles away in eastern and central Europe,” Dr. Kolobova and his colleagues wrote in the conservation.

On the contrary, the team points out that the tools found in the nearby Denisova Cave, which was occupied by Neanderthals over 100,000 years ago, are not Micochian.

Instead, they resemble the so-called ‘Levallois’ style, in which the flakes were cut from a previously prepared stone core, and its successor, the ‘Mousterian’ style.

Since its first excavation in 2007, the Chagyrskaya Cave, located in the foothills of the Siberian Altai Mountains, has provided 74 Neanderthal fossils, some 90,000 stone artifacts and the remains of plants and animals. In the image, bone fragments of the lower jaw of Neanderthal

Since its first excavation in 2007, the Chagyrskaya Cave, located in the foothills of the Siberian Altai Mountains, has provided 74 Neanderthal fossils, some 90,000 stone artifacts and the remains of plants and animals. In the image, bone fragments of the lower jaw of Neanderthal

Since its first excavation in 2007, the Chagyrskaya Cave, which is located in the foothills of the Altai Mountains in Siberia, has provided 74 Neanderthal fossils, some 90,000 stone artifacts and the remains of plants and animals. In the image, bone fragments of the lower jaw of Neanderthal

The researchers also rebuilt the environmental conditions of that time based on the remains of animals and plants, suggesting that the weather was cold and dry and that Neanderthals would have hunted bison and horses to survive. In the image, a general description of the remains found in the Chagyrskaya cave. The teeth and head fragments are not to scale.

The researchers also rebuilt the environmental conditions of that time based on the remains of animals and plants, suggesting that the weather was cold and dry and that Neanderthals would have hunted bison and horses to survive. In the image, a general description of the remains found in the Chagyrskaya cave. The teeth and head fragments are not to scale.

The researchers also rebuilt the environmental conditions of that time based on the remains of animals and plants, suggesting that the weather was cold and dry and that Neanderthals would have hunted bison and horses to survive. In the image, a general description of the remains found in the Chagyrskaya cave. The teeth and head fragments are not to scale.

“The presence of Micochian artifacts in the Chagyrskaya cave suggests at least two separate dispersions of Neanderthals in southern Siberia,” the researchers wrote.

“Sites like Denisova’s cave were occupied by Neanderthals who entered the region before 100,000 years ago, while Chagyrskaya Neanderthals arrived later.”

The team discovered that DNA analysis of Neanderthal fossils supports the link between the population of the Chagyrskaya cave and its counterparts in Eastern Europe.

«The Chaanrskaya Neanderthal [shares] closer affinities with several European Neanderthals than with a Neanderthal from Denisova cave, ” the team explained.

“When the Chagyrskaya tool manufacturers (or their ancestors) left their Neanderthal homeland in eastern Europe to Central Asia about 60,000 years ago, they could have headed north and east around the landlocked Caspian Sea.”

This, they explained, “was greatly reduced in size under the prevailing cold and arid conditions.”

“The presence of Micochian artifacts in the Chagyrskaya cave suggests at least two separate dispersions of Neanderthals in southern Siberia,” the researchers wrote

The team discovered that the DNA analysis of Neanderthal fossils supports the link between the population that lived in the Chagyrskaya cave, pictured, and their counterparts in Eastern Europe.

The team discovered that the DNA analysis of Neanderthal fossils supports the link between the population that lived in the Chagyrskaya cave, pictured, and their counterparts in Eastern Europe.

The team discovered that the DNA analysis of Neanderthal fossils supports the link between the population that lived in the Chagyrskaya cave, pictured, and their counterparts in Eastern Europe.

The researchers noted that evidence of such a long transcontinental journey of thousands of miles, the equivalent today of a walk from New York to Los Angeles, is rare in the early Stone Age.

The study, they added, “highlights the value of stone tools as culturally informative markers of ancient population movements.”

“Our findings reinforce the emerging vision of Neanderthals as creative and intelligent people who were skilled survivors,” they wrote.

‘If this were the case, it makes its extinction in Eurasia even more mysterious. Did modern humans hit the fatal blow? The enigma endures, for now.

The full findings of the study were published in the journal. procedures of the National Academy of Sciences.

WHO WAS THE NEANDERTHALS?

The Neanderthals were a close human ancestor who mysteriously disappeared about 50,000 years ago.

The species lived in Africa with the first humans for hundreds of millennia before moving to Europe about 500,000 years ago.

Later, they joined humans who made the same trip sometime in the last 100,000 years.

The Neanderthals were a kind of human cousins, but not a direct ancestor, the two species separated from a common ancestor, which perished about 50,000 years ago. The photo is an exhibition of the Neanderthal Museum

The Neanderthals were a kind of human cousins, but not a direct ancestor, the two species separated from a common ancestor, which perished about 50,000 years ago. The photo is an exhibition of the Neanderthal Museum

The Neanderthals were a kind of human cousins, but not a direct ancestor, the two species separated from a common ancestor, which perished about 50,000 years ago. The photo is an exhibition of the Neanderthal Museum

These were the original ‘cavemen’, which historically were thought to be silly and brutal compared to modern humans.

However, in recent years, and especially in the last decade, it has become increasingly evident that we have been selling Neanderthals in short.

A growing body of evidence points to a more sophisticated and talented type of ‘caveman’ than anyone thought possible.

Now it seems likely that Neanderthals buried their dead with the concept of a future life in mind.

In addition, their diets and behavior were surprisingly flexible.

They used body art as pigments and beads, and they were the first artists, with Neanderthal rock art (and symbolism) in Spain apparently prior to the oldest modern human art for about 20,000 years.

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