The order to carry out the attack on the Salisbury nerve agent came from the "highest level" of the Russian state, says the British Ministry of the Interior.
Sajid Javid did not name Russian President Vladimir Putin as the man who authorized the poisoning of Novichok by the military intelligence service GRU, but said that "we all know what is at the top of the Russian government".
Although the suspects had been identified as GRU agents Alexander Petrov and Ruslan Boshirov and arrest warrants had been issued, "the reality is that we will probably never see them in the UK" because they are unlikely to leave Russia again, Javid acknowledged.
British Prime Minister Theresa May said previously that the attack was "almost certainly" approved at a "high level" of the Russian state, while Security Minister Ben Wallace said Putin was the head of government in Moscow .
Javid told the BBC that the GRU operated on "a very short belt of the Kremlin" and that he was "receiving his instructions directly from the highest levels of the Russian government".
He said about the attack "nauseating and despicable": "unequivocally, clear as water, this was the act of the Russian state, two Russian citizens sent to Great Britain for the sole purpose of carrying out an imprudent assassination attempt".
The Interior Minister said that the United Kingdom had "considerable powers" to respond to Russia.
"We will bring all those powers, both open and covert, to influence Russia and what it represents today."