The work failed in its attempt to suspend the permanent orders in the lower house of the federal parliament over the instability and internal struggles within the Liberal party.
Labor leader Bill Shorten said the Australians were still asking why Malcolm Turnbull is no longer prime minister and accused the government of failing to respond to the public.
"If they do not trust each other, they can not be trusted to watch over Australia's interests," Shorten told parliament on Monday.
Shorten said the government focuses on itself and not on helping the public, noting leaks about visa cases involving Internal Affairs Minister Peter Dutton.
The Labor leader also pointed to Prime Minister Scott Morrison's recent use of the term "Muppets" when he spoke of the recent bitter battle for leadership.
"Those opposed by their own description have resigned to govern, even the prime minister calls his own people & # 39; The Muppet Show & # 39;" he said.
"Two weeks ago it was not the end of the civil war, it was just the first shot and the next battle we see every day."
The Labor Vice-President, Tanya Plibersek, pointed to Mr. Morrison for his support of Mr. Turnbull in the days before he was stabbed as a leader.
She described Mr. Morrison having his arm around the former prime minister while saying "I am ambitious for this man".
"I'm ambitious for your job, that's what I should have said," said Ms. Plibersek in the lower house.
The Minister of Government, Christopher Pyne, said that he agreed to change the leader was not the right thing, blaming Labor for his changes during the era of Kevin Rudd and Julia Gillard.
"I agree with the Australian public that what they want is stability, they want a quiet government in Australia to get on with the work," he said.
Pyne blamed Labor for a "decade of instability," citing the leadership struggle between Julia Gillard and Kevin Rudd.
"Take your hand"
Environmental activists climbed the towering antlers outside the House of Parliament in Canberra, displaying a huge banner condemning the coal industry when Parliament returned.
Two Greenpeace protesters blew up the bright yellow banner that showed an image of Prime Minister Scott Morrison holding a piece of coal along with the words "take my hand."
"On the first day of Scott Morrison as prime minister in Canberra, we let him know how we feel about his comfort with the coal industry through a banner outside of Parliament," the green group posted on Twitter.
Meanwhile, farmers and their supporters are holding a demonstration in Canberra to demand that the federal government take urgent action on climate change.
A convoy with farm dogs made its way into State Circle on Monday morning before the speakers addressed the crowd.
"Rural Australia is at the forefront of climate change, and although our politicians have wavered for a decade, we have grappled with the harsh realities of inaction," said Farmers for Climate Action director Verity Morgan-Schmidt.