The clouds of water within the Great Red Spot of Jupiter raise the hopes & # 039; exotic life & # 039; could exist there

The discovery of NASA within the centuries-old storm, larger than the planet Earth, sheds new light on how Jupiter developed, and whether or not life ever existed in it. In the photo, the big red spot.

Scientists have detected for the first time clouds of water inside the Great Red Spot on Jupiter.

The discovery within the centuries-old storm, larger than the planet Earth, sheds new light on how Jupiter evolved, and if life could or ever existed in it.

It reveals that water on Jupiter is much more common than thought.

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The discovery of NASA within the centuries-old storm, larger than the planet Earth, sheds new light on how Jupiter developed, and whether or not life ever existed in it. In the photo, the big red spot.

The discovery of NASA within the centuries-old storm, larger than the planet Earth, sheds new light on how Jupiter developed, and whether or not life ever existed in it. In the photo, the big red spot.

COULD LIFE EXIST IN JUPITER?

the The main candidate for life outside Earth is still Jupiter's moon, Europe.

In May, NASA found evidence of water columns there.

Elizabeth Turtle, a planetary scientist at Johns Hopkins University, said: "We know that Europe has many of the necessary ingredients for life, no doubt as we know it.

There's water. There is energy. There is a certain amount of carbon material.

"But the habitability of Europe is one of the big questions we want to understand."

However, NASA previously mentioned the possibility of some form of life on Jupiter.

"At a certain altitude in Jupiter's atmosphere, there are chemical products that are necessary for some kind of exotic lifestyle.

"The temperatures are warm enough and the flashes of light could provide energy that drives the chemical reactions necessary for life."

"The discovery of water on Jupiter is important in many ways," said Clemson University astrophysicist Máté Ádámkovics.

"Our current study focused on the red spot, but future projects will be able to estimate how much water there is on the planet,

"And finally, where there is the potential for liquid water, the possibility of life can not be completely ruled out.

"So, although it seems very unlikely, life on Jupiter is not beyond the reach of our imagination."

The research also shows that the planet may have migrated to its current location.

"On the basis of all the exoplanets now known, it seems as if the planets could form in a different place and then migrate to and from where we see them today," said Imke de Pater, professor of astronomy and co at the University of California at Berkeley -author of a report that appeared this month in the Astronomical Journal.

– So, what happened in our solar system? Was Jupiter formed beyond where Neptune is today?

By observing Jupiter's famous Great Red Spot with thermo-sensitive telescopes, NASA's Gordon Bjoraker said the space agency found chemical signatures of water in the planet's clouds.

The water pressure, the researchers concluded, combined with their measurements of another oxygen carrier gas, carbon monoxide, implies that Jupiter has 2 to 9 times more oxygen than the Sun.

The finding supports theoretical and computer simulation models that have predicted abundant water (H2O) in Jupiter made of oxygen (O) bound to molecular hydrogen (H2).

It also raises the possibility of what NASA calls exotic life & # 39;

The US space agency UU He has said previously: "At a certain altitude in Jupiter's atmosphere, there are chemicals that are necessary for some kind of exotic lifestyle."

"The temperatures are warm enough and the flashes of light could provide energy that drives the chemical reactions necessary for life."

The Great Red Spot is filled with dense clouds, which makes it difficult for electromagnetic energy to escape and teaches astronomers anything about internal chemistry.

"It turns out they are not so thick that they block our ability to see deeply," Bjoraker said.

"It has been a pleasant surprise."

The data collected by Bjoraker and his team will complement the information that NASA's Juno spacecraft is collecting while circulating around the planet from north to south once every 53 days.

Among other things, Juno is looking for water with its own infrared spectrometer and with a microwave radiometer that can probe deeper than anyone has seen: up to 100 bars, or 100 times the atmospheric pressure on the Earth's surface.

"Water is an important and abundant molecule in our solar system," NASA said.

& # 39; Engendered life on Earth and now lubricates many of its most essential processes, including climate.

"It's a critical factor in Jupiter's turbulent climate, too, and in determining whether the planet has a core made of rock and ice."

The Great red spot is the dark patch in the middle of this infrared image of Jupiter. It is dark due to the thick clouds that block the thermal radiation. The yellow strip denotes the portion of the Great Red Spot used in the analysis of astrophysicist Gordon L. Bjoraker.

The Great red spot is the dark patch in the middle of this infrared image of Jupiter. It is dark due to the thick clouds that block the thermal radiation. The yellow strip denotes the portion of the Great Red Spot used in the analysis of astrophysicist Gordon L. Bjoraker.

(left) The Great Red Spot is the dark patch in the middle of this infrared image of Jupiter. It is dark due to the thick clouds that block the thermal radiation. The yellow strip denotes the portion of the Great Red Spot used in the analysis of astrophysicist Gordon L. Bjoraker. Right, A model of the clouds in the Great Red Spot of Jupiter showing three layers where the temperature and pressure (red line) are such that ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide and ammonium (NH4SH) are condensed into droplets of clouds. When we see Jupiter from Earth, we see sunlight reflected from the highest ammonia clouds

It is believed that Jupiter is the first planet that was formed by the deviation of the elements that remained from the formation of the Sun when our star merged from an amorphous nebula into a burning ball of gases that we see today.

A theory widely accepted until several decades ago was that Jupiter was identical in composition to the Sun; a ball of hydrogen with a touch of helium, all gas, no nucleus.

But it increases the evidence that Jupiter has a nucleus, possibly 10 times the mass of Earth.

The spacecraft that previously visited the planet found chemical evidence that it formed a core of rock and water ice before mixing with the gases from the solar nebula to form its atmosphere.

The way that Jupiter's gravity pulls Juno also supports this theory.

WHAT IS THE GREAT RED POINT OF JUPITER?

The Great Red Spot of Jupiter is a giant oval of crimson clouds in the southern hemisphere of Jupiter that runs counterclockwise around the perimeter of the oval.

The largest storm in the solar system appears as a deep red orb surrounded by layers of pale yellow, orange and white.

Trapped between two jet streams, the Great Red Spot is an anticyclone rotating around a center of high atmospheric pressure that turns it in the opposite direction of hurricanes on Earth.

The Great Red Spot of Jupiter is a giant oval of crimson clouds in the southern hemisphere of Jupiter that runs counterclockwise around the perimeter of the oval.

The Great Red Spot of Jupiter is a giant oval of crimson clouds in the southern hemisphere of Jupiter that runs counterclockwise around the perimeter of the oval.

The Great Red Spot of Jupiter is a giant oval of crimson clouds in the southern hemisphere of Jupiter that runs counterclockwise around the perimeter of the oval.

The winds within the storm have been measured at several hundred miles per hour, with wind storms greater than any storm on Earth, according to NASA astronomers.

In the late 1800s, it was estimated to be about 35,000 miles (about 56,000 km) in diameter, wide enough for four Earths to fit side by side.

Measuring 10,000 miles (16,000 kilometers) wide as of April 3, 2017, the Great Red Spot is 1.3 times wider than Earth and is gradually reduced over time.

There are even lightning and thunder on the planet, phenomena fed by moisture.

"The moons that orbit Jupiter are mostly water ice, so the whole neighborhood has a lot of water," Bjoraker said. "Why the planet, which is this great gravity, where everything falls, could not be rich in water too?"

Experts in planetary atmosphere expect three layers of clouds on Jupiter: a lower layer made of ice water and liquid water, an intermediate layer made of ammonia and sulfur, and a top layer made of ammonia.

Bjoraker's team found evidence of the three layers of clouds in the Great Red Spot, supporting previous models. The deepest cloud layer is at 5 bars, the team concluded, just where the temperature reaches the freezing point of the water, Bjoraker said, "so I say it's very likely that we will find a cloud of water."

The location of the water cloud, plus the amount of carbon monoxide the researchers identified in Jupiter, confirms that Jupiter is rich in oxygen and, therefore, in water.

Bjoraker's technique now needs to be tested elsewhere in Jupiter to have a complete idea of ​​the global abundance of water, and its data matches Juno's findings.

"Jupiter's abundance of water will tell us a lot about how the giant planet was formed, but only if we can calculate how much water there is on the entire planet," said Steven M. Levin, a Juno project scientist at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. of NASA in Pasadena, California.

A recent series of NASA images shows a great storm that hits Jupiter.

The rotating anticyclone can be seen moving gradually across the surface of the planet in five images taken only 17 minutes apart by the Juno spacecraft from the space agency.

The images reveal the intricate details of Jupiter's marbled surface and capture several of the planet's "striking atmospheric features," including jets and vortices in its North North Tempered Belt, NASA said.

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The new images from NASA show a great storm that hits Jupiter. An oval white anticyclone, called N5-AWO, can be seen in the left center of the first image on the far left. It seems slightly higher in the second and third images as it moves across the surface of Jupiter. A storm of & # 39; storm & # 39; known as Little Red Spot is visible near the bottom of the second and third images

The new images from NASA show a great storm that hits Jupiter. An oval white anticyclone, called N5-AWO, can be seen in the left center of the first image on the far left. It seems slightly higher in the second and third images as it moves across the surface of Jupiter. A storm of & # 39; storm & # 39; known as Little Red Spot is visible near the bottom of the second and third images

The new images from NASA show a great storm that hits Jupiter. An oval white anticyclone, called N5-AWO, can be seen in the left center of the first image on the far left. It seems slightly higher in the second and third images as it moves across the surface of Jupiter. A storm of & # 39; storm & # 39; known as Little Red Spot is visible near the bottom of the second and third images

From left to right, the sequence of images was filmed between 00:54 a.m. and 1:11 a.m. ET (5:54 a.m. and 6:11 a.m. BST) on July 16, when the Juno spacecraft made its 14th flyby close to Jupiter.

A large anticyclone, a powerful rotating storm caused by pressure differences in the planet's atmosphere, can be seen as a white oval, represented in the center-left of the planet in the first image on the left.

Nicknamed N5-AWO, the same storm can be seen traveling slightly higher in the second and third images, as it jumps over the surface of Jupiter, which is more than ten times the size of Earth.

Another storm, known as the Little Red Spot, can be seen at the bottom of the second and third images.

The massive and violent weather phenomenon, found in the northern hemisphere of Jupiter, is the third largest anticyclonic storm on the planet, extending about 3,700 miles (6,000 km) in length.

The reddish orange band that is prominently displayed in the fourth and fifth images is the North North Temperate Belt, a series of atmospheric jet jets and vortices.

Juno has orbited Jupiter since 2016. This improved color image was taken at 2:31 a.m. ET (7:30 a.m. BST) on May 24, when the spacecraft made its 13th flyby close to Jupiter. At that time, Juno was about 44,300 miles (71,400 kilometers) above the top layer of the planet's clouds

Juno has orbited Jupiter since 2016. This improved color image was taken at 2:31 a.m. ET (7:30 a.m. BST) on May 24, when the spacecraft made its 13th flyby close to Jupiter. At that time, Juno was about 44,300 miles (71,400 kilometers) above the top layer of the planet's clouds

Juno has orbited Jupiter since 2016. This improved color image was taken at 2:31 a.m. ET (7:30 a.m. BST) on May 24, when the spacecraft made its 13th flyby close to Jupiter. At that time, Juno was about 44,300 miles (71,400 kilometers) above the top layer of the planet's clouds

Juno's JunoCam camera cut the time lapse as the ship traveled from an altitude of 15,700 miles (25,300 km) above the planet's top cloud layer to around 3,900 miles (6,200 km).

JunoCam's raw images are available for the public to explore and process, and the time lapse was created by citizen scientists Gerald Eichstädt and Seán Doran, NASA said.

"The striking atmospheric features in the northern hemisphere of Jupiter are captured in this series of color-enhanced images from NASA's Juno spacecraft," the space agency said in a statement.

Juno has orbited Jupiter since 2016 on a mission to collect data from the mysterious atmosphere of the planet.

Earlier this month, the spacecraft's data was used to solve a long-standing mystery underlying Jupiter's characteristic color bands.

Several strong jet streams flow from west to east in Jupiter's atmosphere, which are similar to the jet streams of Earth.

However, unlike Earth, where jet streams plow through the surface, Jupiter currents are more even, and there are no continents and mountains below Jupiter's atmosphere that obstruct the path of jet streams.

WHAT IS THE MISSION JUNO OF NASA FOR JUPITER?

The Juno probe reached Jupiter in 2016 after a five-year trip and 1.8 billion miles from Earth

The Juno probe reached Jupiter in 2016 after a five-year trip and 1.8 billion miles from Earth

The Juno probe reached Jupiter in 2016 after a five-year trip and 1.8 billion miles from Earth

The Juno probe reached Jupiter on July 4, 2016, after a five-year, 1.8 billion-kilometer trip from Earth.

After a successful braking maneuver, it entered a long polar orbit that flew within 3,100 miles (5,000 km) of the tops of the planet's swirling clouds.

The probe tracked only 2,600 miles (4,200 km) of the planet's clouds once every two weeks, too close to provide global coverage in a single image.

No previous spacecraft has orbited so close to Jupiter, although two others have been sent to its destruction through its atmosphere.

To complete her risky mission, Juno survived a circuit radiation storm generated by Jupiter's powerful magnetic field.

The vortex of high-energy particles that travel at almost the speed of light is the harshest radiation environment in the Solar System.

To cope with the conditions, the spacecraft was protected with hardened wiring by special radiation and shielding the sensor.

His all-important "brain" -the spacecraft's flight computer-was housed in an armored vault made of titanium and weighing almost 400 pounds (172 kg).

The ship is expected to study the composition of the planet's atmosphere until 2021.

As a result, the Jet streams on Jupiter are much simpler than those on Earth, causing less turbulence in the upper atmosphere.

Ammonia clouds in Jupiter's outer atmosphere are swept by these jet streams to form Jupiter's regimented color bands.

Unlike Earth, the largest planet in our Solar System has no solid surface: it is a totally gaseous planet, composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.

NASA's Juno spacecraft took this enhanced color image at 1:23 a.m. ET (6:23 a.m. BST) on May 24, when the spacecraft made its 13th close flyby of Jupiter. The region that is seen here is somewhat chaotic and turbulent, given the diverse formations of clouds that spiral around, said NASA.

NASA's Juno spacecraft took this enhanced color image at 1:23 a.m. ET (6:23 a.m. BST) on May 24, when the spacecraft made its 13th close flyby of Jupiter. The region that is seen here is somewhat chaotic and turbulent, given the diverse formations of clouds that spiral around, said NASA.

NASA's Juno spacecraft took this enhanced color image at 1:23 a.m. ET (6:23 a.m. BST) on May 24, when the spacecraft made its 13th close flyby of Jupiter. The region that is seen here is somewhat chaotic and turbulent, given the diverse formations of clouds that spiral around, said NASA.

An international team of scientists, including the National University of Australia (ANU), studied recent evidence from NASA's Juno spacecraft that examined these gas layers.

This proved that Jupiter's jet streams reach a depth of 1,800 miles (3,000 km) below Jupiter's clouds, which are white, red, orange, brown and yellow.

Experts say that the interaction between Jupiter's atmosphere and its magnetic fields is responsible for the bright layers visible on the planet's surface.

Dr. Navid Constantinou of the ANU Earth Sciences research school, one of the researchers of the study, said that until recently little was known about what happened under the clouds of Jupiter.

"We know a lot about jet streams in the Earth's atmosphere and the key role they play in weather and climate, but we still have a lot to learn about Jupiter's atmosphere," he said.

"The jet streams from Earth have a great impact on climate and climate by acting as a barrier and making it more difficult for air on both sides to exchange properties such as heat, humidity and carbon.

"Scientists have long debated how deep the jet streams reach beneath the surfaces of Jupiter and other gaseous giants, and why they do not appear inside the sun."

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