Iranian Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei on Saturday called for "quick and fair" legal action on the new courts after the head of the judiciary said the country faces an "economic war," state television reported.
The currency has lost about half of its value since April under the threat of revived United States sanctions, with a strong demand for dollars among ordinary Iranians trying to protect their savings.
The cost of living has also skyrocketed, sparking sporadic demonstrations against speculation and corruption, and many protesters shouting slogans against the government.
The central bank and the judiciary have blamed the "enemies" for the collapse of the currency and a rapid increase in the price of gold coins, and the judiciary has said that more than 40 people, including a former deputy central bank, have been arrested on charges that carry the death penalty.
The judiciary has suggested that the archenemies of the United States and Israel, as well as the regional rivals of Saudi Arabia and the government living in exile, are fueling the riots.
"The current special economic conditions are considered an economic war," Ayatollah Sadeq Amoli Larijani, the head of the judiciary, said in a letter to Khamenei, calling for the creation of special courts to deal quickly with financial crimes, according to the report. TV.
Khamenei agreed and said: "The objective (of the courts) should be to punish quickly and fairly those guilty of corrupt economic practices," the television added. "The courts should be advised to (ensure) the accuracy of their judgments."
New Islamic revolutionary courts will be established for two years and they will be ordered to impose maximum sentences on those who "disturb and corrupt the economy", and appellate rights will be suppressed, Amoli Larijani proposed in his letter, read on state television.
In May, the United States withdrew from a 2015 agreement between the world powers and Tehran under which international sanctions against Iran were lifted in exchange for restrictions on its nuclear program.
This week, Washington again imposed sanctions on Iran's purchase of Iranian dollars, its trade in gold and precious metals and its dealings with metals, coal and industrial software.
The United States has told other countries that they must suspend Iranian oil imports starting in early November or face US financial measures.