MIT researchers have a real shrink ray & # 39; made 3D structures can reduce to a thousandth of their original size.
Scientists can put all sorts of useful materials into the polymer before they shrink, including metals, quantum dots and DNA.
The process is essentially the opposite of expansion microscopy, which is widely used by scientists to create 3D visualizations of microscopic cells.
Instead of making things bigger, scientists attach special molecules that block negative charges between molecules so that they no longer repel, causing them to contract.
Experts say that making such small structures in many areas could be useful, for example in medicine and for making nanoscale robotics.
MIT researchers have a real shrink ray & # 39; (photo) made 3D structures can reduce to one thousandth of their original size. Scientists can put all sorts of useful materials into the polymer before they shrink, such as metals, quantum dots and DNA
It is a way to place almost any kind of material in a 3-D pattern with precision at the nanoscale, according to Edward Boyden, associate professor of biological sciences and brain and cognitive sciences at MIT.
With the help of the new technique, researchers can create any desired shape and structure, according to the publication in Science.
After they provide useful materials to the polymer scaffolding & # 39; have confirmed it, shrink it and get structures that are one thousandth of the original.
Scientists say the technology uses equipment that many biology and materials science laboratories already have, making it widely accessible to researchers who want to try it.
Scientists are currently able to print 3D nanonscal objects directly.
However, this is only possible with specialized materials such as polymers and plastics that have limited applications.
To remedy this, researchers decided to adapt a technique that was developed several years ago for imaging with high resolution of brain tissue.
This technique, known as expansion microscopy, involves embedding tissue into a hydrogel and then expanding it.
Hundreds of research groups in biology and medicine now use expansion microscopy because it allows 3D visualization of cells and tissues with ordinary hardware.
The new technique involves reversing the process.
By doing this, scientists can create large-scale objects that are embedded in extensive hydrogels and then reduce them to the nanoscale.
They call this approach & # 39; implosion manufacture & # 39 ;.
Researchers think these nanobjects can be used to make better lenses for mobile phone cameras, microscopes (stock images) or endoscopes
As with the microscopy with expansion, the researchers used a highly absorbent material made of polyacrylate. This is a plastic that is usually found in diapers.
The polyacrylate forms the support on which other materials can be attached.
It is then bathed in a solution containing molecules of fluorescein, which attach themselves to the scaffold when they are activated by laser light.
Then they use a microscope with two photons to point points deep in the structure.
They attach fluorescein molecules to these specific locations in the gel.
This acts as anchors that bind to other types of molecules that are in the structure.
& # 39; You fix the anchors where you want with light, and later you can confirm what you want to the anchors, & # 39; said Dr. Boyden.
It could be a quantum dot, it could be a piece of DNA, it could be a golden nanoparticle. & # 39;
Once the desired molecules have been attached to the right locations, the researchers shrink the entire structure by adding an acid.
The acid blocks the negative charges in the polyacrylate gel so that they no longer repel each other, causing the gel to contract.
With this technique, researchers can shrink the objects 10-fold in each dimension (for a total 1000-fold reduction in volume).
This ability to shrink not only provides a higher resolution, but also makes it possible to assemble materials in a low-density scaffold.
This means that it can be easily adjusted and that the material later becomes a dense solid when it is shrunk.
Researchers believe that these nanobjects can be used to make better lenses for cellular cameras, microscopes or endoscopes.
Further on in the future, researchers say that this approach can be used to build electronics or nanoscale robots.
WILL GLOBAL HEATINGS TYPE OF TYPES OF CRIMPING?
A study conducted by the University of British Columbia (UBC) in Canada has shown that the beetles in the region have shrunk over the past century.
By looking at eight species of beetle and measuring the animals of the past and present, they discovered that some beetles adapted to a smaller body size.
The data also showed that the larger beetles became smaller, but the smaller ones did not.
About 50 million years ago, the earth was warmed by three degrees Celsius (5.4 ° F) and as a result the animal species shrank by 14 per cent at that time.
Another warming event of about 55 million years ago – the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) – heated the earth by up to eight degrees Celsius (14.4 ° F).
In this case, animal species of the time shrunk by up to a third.
Wool-haired mammoths were the victims of the warming climate, the shrinking habitat and the increased hunting of a growing early human population that brought them to extinction – along with many large animals
The shrinking of the body size is shown by different warming of the earth.
With global temperatures continuing to rise, the average size of most animals is expected to decrease.
In addition to the greenhouse effect, the world has seen a dramatic decline in the number of large animals.
So-called & # 39; megafauna & # 39; are large animals that die out. With a long lifespan and relatively small populations, they are less able to adapt to rapid changes as smaller animals that reproduce more often.
Often hunted for trophies or for food, large animals such as the mastadon, mammoths and the western black rhino, which was declared extinct in 2011, are threatened with extinction.