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Team develops powerful new tool to aid in battle against cancer-causing bacteria in the stomach

Powerful new tool to fight cancer-causing bacteria in our stomach

Clinical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test Ramanometry for Helicobacter pylori (CAST-R-HP). Credit: Liu Yang

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), the bacterium that can cause human gastritis, stomach ulcers and stomach cancer, infects about half of the world’s population. It is essential to quickly identify the infection and select the right combination of sensitive antibiotics. However, current tools are limited, mainly because H. pylori is slow growing and difficult to breed.

Researchers from the Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology (QIBEBT) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and their collaborators at State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention (ICDC) of China CDC and Qingdao Municipal Hospital have developed a medical instrument called Clinical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test Ramanometry for Helicobacter pylori (CAST-R-HP), which shows promise as a powerful new tool in the diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori infections.

Their findings were published June 18 in the journal Clinical Chemistry

In the fight against H. pylori, researchers and healthcare professionals need tools that are fast, reliable and sensitive for pathogen identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, along with genome-wide mutation profiling that reveals the bacteria’s resistance mechanisms.

Current methods for detecting H. pylori and identifying sensitive antibiotics for eradication therapy are bacterial culture and drug susceptibility testing based on endoscopic gastric mucosa samples.

“Current culture-based antimicrobial susceptibility testing is too slow and requires a turnaround time of at least a week,” said Prof. Zhang Jianzhong of China CDC’s State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, ICDC, a senior author of the study.

The team has devised an approach that performs rapid pathogen identification, metabolism inhibition-based antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and high-performance single-cell genome sequencing to reveal antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. Their approach provides greater than 98 percent accuracy and is successful at accurate single-cell resolution working directly from biopsy samples.

The core technologies, called D2O-probed Ramanometry and Raman-activated Cell Sorting and Sequencing (RACS-Seq), are integrated into the CAST-R-HP instrument.

“The culture independence, speed, high resolution and extensive information output suggest that CAST-R-HP is a powerful tool for diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori infections, now with single-cell precision,” said Xu Jian, another senior author of the study and director of single cell center at QIBEBT.

Looking forward to future research, the team will explore ways to further accelerate the CAST-R-HP, for example by developing a microfluidics-based chip to enrich the trace number of cells directly from the H. pylori-infected biopsy tissue. This chip development could further reduce the turnaround time of the metabolic inhibition-based antimicrobial susceptibility test from approximately three days to less than 24 hours.

“Our next step would be to fully assess the usefulness of the workflow for all first-line and second-line antibiotics used to treat H. pylori infections,” said Liu Min of QIBEBT’s Single-Cell Center, lead author. of the article.

The team’s CAST-R-HP can also be used to map the heterogeneity of H. pylori at the genome level. “By enabling identification, drug susceptibility testing, and whole-genome resource tracking with single-cell resolution, CAST-R-HP should not only facilitate the precise administration of antibiotics for H. pylori infection, but reduce the risk of drug resistance.” in general human populations,” Xu Jian added.

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More information:
Min Liu et al, Single-Cell Identification, Drug Susceptibility Test, and Whole-genome Sequencing of Helicobacter pylori Directly from Gastric Biopsy by Clinical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test Ramanometry, Clinical Chemistry (2022). DOI: 10.1093/clinchem/hvac082

Provided by the Chinese Academy of Sciences

Quote: Team develops powerful new tool to help fight cancer-causing bacteria in the stomach (2022, June 20) Retrieved June 20, 2022 from https://phys.org/news/2022-06-team-powerful-tool- aid-cancer-causing.html

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