Study reveals the first deep-sea crustacean genome
The deep sea environment is characterized by darkness, low temperature, high hydrostatic pressure and lack of food. Despite the hostile environment, a growing number of deep-dwelling animals have been identified in this ecosystem, including worms, mollusks, fish, and crustaceans.
Numerous genomes, including those of tube worms, molluscs and fish, have been published in recent years, while no crustacean genome has been reported.
Recently, a research team led by Prof. Li Fuhua and Li Xinzheng of the Institute of Oceanology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (IOCAS) developed the first genome of deep-sea crustaceans and illustrated the mechanisms associated with body gigantism of deep-sea isopods. and specific mechanisms for crustaceans that adapt to deep-sea environments.
The study is published in BMC Biology on May 13.
The researchers sequenced and assembled a high-quality genome of a giant isopod (Bathynomus jamesi), which not only has a large body size, but also a large genome size (the largest among sequenced crustaceans), both of which appear to be closely linked. with their adaptation to the deep-sea environment.
Unlike its small-body relatives, B. jamesi’s growth-related pathways are usually enriched by extensive gene families, including two hormone signaling pathways (thyroid and insulin). They form an enhanced network of growth-related genes and possibly contribute to the gigantism of the body.
To adapt to the deep-sea oligotrophic environment, B. jamesi has a low basal metabolism, bulk food stores, and extensive gene families associated with nutrient utilization. “The well-developed adipose body of B. jamesi is used to store organic reserves, and our results indicate that the accumulation of lipids in the adipose body should result from a low efficiency of lipid degradation rather than a high efficiency of lipid synthesis said Yuan Jianbo, lead author of the study.
The B. jamesi genome can help us understand the evolutionary and migration history (between deep sea and shallow water and land) of isopods and even crustaceans. “This genome also helps us understand the genetics associated with body gigantism, and uncover the mysterious genetics associated with its extraordinarily long fasting state, i.e. 5 years of starvation, and the specific mechanisms of shellfish adaptation. [to] deep-sea environments,” Yuan said.
Jianbo Yuan et al, Genome of a giant isopod, Bathynomus jamesi, provides insight into body size evolution and adaptation to the deep-sea environment, BMC Biology (2022). DOI: 10.1186/s12915-022-01302-6
Quote: Study reveals first deep crustacean genome (2022, June 23) recovered June 23, 2022 from https://phys.org/news/2022-06-reveals-deep-sea-crustacean-genome.html
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