Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci, usually Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, is one of the greatest painters of the last millennium.
He was born in modern Italy in 1452 to parents outside marriage and died in France at the age of 67.
The Polymath was a driving force behind the Renaissance era in Italy and loved inventing, painting, sculpture, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history and cartography.
He is attributed to the development of the parachute, helicopter and tank, but is most recognizable for works of art such as the Mona Lisa, the last supper, Vitruvian man.
Only about fifteen of his paintings survive because of his constant and often disastrous experiments with new techniques and his chronic delay.
His most celebrated works remain on permanent display in public, with the Mona Lisa hanging in the Louvre since 1797 and the mural painting of the Last Supper in the Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan.
Another piece of art, called the Salvator Mundi, sold for a $ 450.3 million (£ 343 million) world record at a Christie's New York auction in 2017.
Relatively few of his designs were built or even practicable during his lifetime, but some of his smaller inventions, such as an automated bobbin winder and a machine for testing the tensile strength of wire, ended up in the world of production.
He made important discoveries in anatomy, civil engineering, optics and hydrodynamics, but he did not publish his findings and they had no direct influence on later science.
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