Soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe), is a destructive pathogen in soybean. Nematode-infected juveniles can use phytochemical signals (parachemicals) released in the rhizosphere as important indicators for host search, host location, and penetration.
Disrupting host-searching signals to prevent nematode infection is a promising method for controlling soil nematodes. The attraction and repulsion of chemotactic cues by nematodes is closely related to their chemosensory system.
Based on full-length phylogenetic sequences, a research team led by Professor Wang Congli of the Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences selected the soybean cyst nematode as a model system to investigate plant-parasitic nematode behavior and gene expression changes in response to pH, acid-basic and salt signals.
This study has been published in Journal of agricultural and food chemistry.
Transcriptome sequencing indicated that 3,972 novel genes and 29,529 novel transcripts were identified. Structural variation during or after transcription may be associated with the behavioral response of nematodes.
Functional analysis of 1,817/4,962 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) showed that signal transduction pathways, including transmembrane receptors, ion channels, and Ca2+ vectors, but pathways involved in nematode development (eg, ribosomes) and energy production (eg, oxidative phosphorylation) were inhibited.
Activated transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors included Srsx chemoreceptor, Wnt receptor MOM-5 (curly 1/7), dopamine F59.D12.1 receptor, neuropeptide 18 receptor, M3 acetylcholine receptor, and thyrotropin receptor.
In addition, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, the beta subunit of the aminobutyric acid receptor, and 18-guanylate cyclase receptors can regulate ion channels, while the plasma membrane of ion transporters Ca2+ The ATPase, ion channel voltage-gated calcium channel, and transient receptor potential channel TRP-1 (TRPC4) were also activated.
Activation and inhibition of receptors in growth and development indicated that nematodes maintain energy homeostasis by regulating the metabolic pathway under favorable conditions, which also explains why soybean cyst nematode disease is severe in acidic, basic or high-salt soils.
A pH- and salt-ion stimulus-responsive regulatory model was generated by combining DEGs and protein-protein interaction analysis. The results of the model suggest that these specific receptors and ion channels may be potential targets for nematodes to control plant parasitic nematodes or discovery of drugs to control human or animal parasitic nematodes.
Full-length transcriptome analysis of the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) reveals the association of behaviors in response to attractive pH and salt solutions with activation of membrane receptors, ion channels, and calcium.2+ carriers, Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry (2023). DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.3c00908
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