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The unnamed three-year-old had pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. But for only 22 days, the bacteria developed resistance to ceftolozane-tazobactam (labeled as Zerbaxa) - the drug that is given to remove the bug

The potentially fatal infection of a toddler became resistant to an antibiotic in just three weeks before the last ditch, doctors have warned.

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The unnamed three-year-old had pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a germ that is already strong enough to fight many life-saving drugs.

But in just 22 days, the bacteria developed resistance to ceftolozane-tazobactam – the drug that was given to remove the bug.

French doctors treating the child discovered that his strain of P aeruginosa carried a mutation that made it stronger against the type of antibiotic.

The experts from University Paris-Saclay have warned that the mutation – called G183D – & # 39; fast & # 39; can cause resistance during treatment.

The unnamed three-year-old had pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. But for only 22 days, the bacteria developed resistance to ceftolozane-tazobactam (labeled as Zerbaxa) - the drug that is given to remove the bug

The unnamed three-year-old had pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. But in just 22 days, the bacteria developed resistance to ceftolozane-tazobactam (labeled as Zerbaxa) – the drug that is given to remove the bug

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Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is considered to be one of the greatest threats to humanity, in addition to climate change and terrorism.

Antibiotics have been dispensed unnecessarily by general practitioners and hospital staff for decades, so that once harmless bacteria are supplied with super poison.

About 700,000 people die every year as a result of drug-resistant infections around the world. It is estimated that the annual toll will reach 10 million by 2050.

Dr. Leurent Dortet and colleagues published their warning about the newly discovered mutation in the journal Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.

Dr. Dortet said: & # 39; Our results have shown that resistance to this new molecule (ceftolozane-tazobactam) can occur quickly during treatment. & # 39;

He noted that the moment they discovered the mutation, the antibiotic – marked as Zerbaxa – had only been in clinical use for a few years.

The three-year-old had biliary atresia, a rare disease in which one or more of the bile ducts of the liver are narrow, blocked or missing.

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They got pneumonia from an & # 39; extremely drug resistant & # 39; strain of P. aeruginosa after a second liver transplant.

French doctors treating the child discovered that his strain of P aeruginosa carried a mutation that made it stronger against the type of antibiotic

French doctors treating the child discovered that his strain of P aeruginosa carried a mutation that made it stronger against the type of antibiotic

French doctors treating the child discovered that his strain of P aeruginosa carried a mutation that made it stronger against the type of antibiotic

Six months later, in March 2016, the patient received ceftolozane-tazobactam to treat a follow-on infection.

Samples of the bacteria taken 22 days later showed one isolate that was resistant – which had not been seen by doctors before.

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Doctors did not state what happened to the boy.

Dr. Dortet and his team found the mutation responsible for causing the resistance by analyzing the genes of the samples.

The mutated gene causes the overexpression of cephalosporinase, a mechanism known to cause resistance to other types of antibiotics.

However, the same mutation made the P. aeruginosa a little more sensitive to antibiotics that have been used for decades.

These include piperacillin-tazobactam – a drug that the bacteria had previously been completely resistant to – and other carbapenems.

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Dr. Leurent Dortet, lead author of the article, said giving patients higher doses of ceftolozane-tazobactam could be beneficial.

This is because it would kill the bacteria before it got the chance to hold on again – and enable doctors to use other antibiotics in their arsenal.

Dr. However, Dortet warned that doctors still need to be careful "because other resistance mechanisms may be present."

Susan Hopkins, head of antimicrobial resistance at Public Health England (PHE), said: “Antibiotics save lives every day.

& # 39; Powerful steps are needed to tackle antimicrobial resistance by reducing and saving excessive use of antibiotics for when we really need them. & # 39;

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Figures from the Ministry of Health and Social Care show that in 2018/19 there were almost 5,000 cases of P. aeruginosa in NHS hospitals.

The bacteria, which are usually found in the soil and in the groundwater, tend not to cause or cause problems in healthy people.

Instead, the bug is known to hit people with a weakened immune system, such as patients with cystic fibrosis and newborns.

The World Health Organization included P. aeruginosa in its list of pathogens in the world in 2017.

WHAT IS ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE?

Antibiotics have been dispensed unnecessarily by general practitioners and hospital staff for decades, so that once harmless bacteria are supplied with super poison.

The World Health Organization has warned earlier if nothing is done, the world was moving towards a & # 39; post-antibiotic & # 39; era.

It claimed that common infections, such as chlamydia, will become murderers without immediate answers to the growing crisis.

Bacteria can become resistant to medicines when people take the wrong doses of antibiotics, or they are distributed unnecessarily.

Chief medical officer Dame Sally Davies claimed in 2016 that the threat of antibiotic resistance is just as serious as terrorism.

Figures estimate that superugs will kill ten million people every year by 2050, with patients succumbing to once harmless insects.

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About 700,000 people die every year as a result of drug-resistant infections, including tuberculosis (TB), HIV and malaria around the world.

There have been repeated concerns that drugs will be returned to the & # 39; dark ages & # 39; if antibiotics will no longer be effective in the coming years.

In addition to the fact that existing drugs are becoming less effective, only one or two new antibiotics have been developed in the last 30 years.

In September, the World Health Organization warned that antibiotics were running out & # 39; because in a report a & # 39; serious defect & # 39; new drugs in the development pipeline.

Without antibiotics, caesarean sections, cancer treatments and hip replacements, it would also be incredibly risky & # 39; was said at the time.

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