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Novel chromosome engineering materials provide resistance to Ug99 for wheat breeders

New chromosome engineering materials offer wheat breeders resistance to Ug99

The karyotype of wheat-rye addition lines and assessment of resistance to Ug99. Credit: IGDB

In a recent study published online in Theoretical and applied geneticshas the group of Dr. Han Fangpu of the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences reported the establishment of new wheat-rye additive lines conferring resistance to Ug99.

Ug99, a new strain of Puccinia graminis f. sp. Tritici, is virulent to several wheat cultivars around the world and a significant threat to global food security. It is therefore of great importance and urgency to mine new sources of resistance genes and transfer them to wheat. Rye, a close relative of wheat, is resistant to leaf rust, stripe rust, stem rust and powdery mildew. It has become a valuable source of several broad-spectrum disease resistance genes for improvements in wheat genetics.

In this study, the researchers developed two completely new sets of wheat-rye disomic addition lines using molecular cytogenetic methods. Subsequently, a new set of telosome addition lines was obtained from the progeny of wheat-rye monosomic addition lines.

They found that the wheat-rye 3RL telosome addition line carried a new resistance gene to Ug99 through assessments of disease resistance, cytological analysis and molecular markers. Therefore, the new Ug99 resistance gene can be used for wheat breeding in the future.

In addition, several chromosomal and centromere variations are induced by distant wheat-rye hybridization. This process results in ring chromosomes, minichromosomes, dicentric chromosomes, and tricentric chromosomes from the offspring of wheat-rye hybrids.

These materials provide valuable genetic resources for studying the structure, activation/inactivation and function of centromere. These resources will provide important genetic diversity for future wheat-rye hybrid progeny, as well as clues to the discovery of other Ug99 resistance genes that will be introduced in wheat in the future.

Genetic options allow scientists to transfer rust resistance from one plant to another

More information:
Chang Liu et al, Establishment of a series of wheat-rye addition lines with resistance to stem rust, Theoretical and applied genetics (2022). DOI: 10.1007/s00122-022-04127-7

Provided by the Chinese Academy of Sciences

Quote: New Chromosome Engineering Materials Provide Resistance to Ug99 for Wheat Growers (June 2022, June 22) Retrieved June 22, 2022 from https://phys.org/news/2022-06-chromosome-materials-resistance-ug99-wheat.html

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