NASA has created the coldest place in space to demonstrate an Einstein theory

These graphs show the density of an atom cloud as it cools to lower and lower temperatures. The appearance of an acute peak in the subsequent graphs confirms the formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate, a fifth state of matter, which occurs here at a temperature of 130 nano-Kelvin.

NASA has created the coldest place in the known universe, and it is ten billion times colder than the depths of space.

A team aboard the International Space Station used a small box loaded with lasers and a vacuum chamber to hyper freeze atoms in an attempt to better understand how gravity interacts with matter at the smaller scales.

They created in the orbit clouds of ultra-cold atoms known as Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) in orbit for the first time.

The research aims to demonstrate a unified theory of the fundamental forces of the universe predicted but never proven by Einstein 71 years ago.

It could pave the way for improved sensors, quantum computers and atomic clocks for space navigation.

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These graphs show the density of an atom cloud as it cools to lower and lower temperatures. The appearance of an acute peak in the subsequent graphs confirms the formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate, a fifth state of matter, which occurs here at a temperature of 130 nano-Kelvin.

These graphs show the density of an atom cloud as it cools to lower and lower temperatures. The appearance of an acute peak in the subsequent graphs confirms the formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate, a fifth state of matter, which occurs here at a temperature of 130 nano-Kelvin.

The researchers used a specially equipped camera on board the ISS called Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL) that manipulates ultracold quantum gases in microgravity.

Known as Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC), these clouds were first theorized by Albert Einstein and Satyendra Nath Bose.

The thermometer on board the lab in orbit reached a measly 100 nanoKelvin, or a tenth millionth of a Kelvin above absolute zero.

The absolute zero, or zero Kelvin, is equal to -273.15 ° C (459 ° F) and is the temperature where, in theory, the movement of all particles should cease.

Cold atoms are long-lived, precisely controlled quantum particles that scientists hope will contain the key to one of physics' most illusive goals: a unified theory of the four fundamental forces, first proposed by Einstein.

It is expected that by observing the behavior of atoms at almost absolute zero, physicists will be able to understand how gravity, weak force, strong force and electromagnetism work side by side.

Gravity, unlike the other three forces, is known to operate on a huge scale and its large-scale applications are well understood.

What is not known is how gravity, the weakest of the four forces, interacts with quantum particles and where it fits with the other fundamental forces.

CAL launched into orbit in May and hopes to shed light on the role of gravity in the murky waters of quantum physics theory.

BECs have their own unique point in the world order and are defined as a fifth state of matter, different from gases, liquids, solids and plasma.

The box is equipped with lasers, a vacuum, a camera and an electromagnetic knife that can cancel the energy of gas particles to freeze atoms to a point more than 100 million times colder than the depths of space.

The box is equipped with lasers, a vacuum, a camera and an electromagnetic knife that can cancel the energy of gas particles to freeze atoms to a point more than 100 million times colder than the depths of space.

The box is equipped with lasers, a vacuum, a camera and an electromagnetic "knife" that can cancel the energy of gas particles to freeze atoms to a point more than 100 million times colder than the depths of space.

WHAT WAS THE UNIFIED THEORY OF EINSTEIN?

Since the 1920s, Einstein tried to develop a unified theory that combined general relativity and electromagnetism.

At that time, they represented the only two known forces that exist.

Such a theory would describe a single field in which all forces are mediated and the properties of all particles could be deduced.

At the time these were only electrons and protons, with the neutron not discovered until 1932.

Einstein theorized that the connection of the two would allow physicists to put together every facet of the known universe.

The laboratory is designed to improve the ability of scientists to make precision measurements of gravity and to study how it interacts with these unique forms of matter at the smallest scales.

The wave nature of the atoms can usually only be observed in the microscopic scenario, but the BEC make this phenomenon macroscopic and, therefore, much easier to study.

Within the CAL, the temperature is so cold that the particles derived from rubidium atoms are in their lowest energy state and, therefore, assume the same wave identity.

This makes the BEC behave as a single "super atom" instead of individual atoms, further increasing the visibility of the phenomena.

They have been studied on Earth since they were first produced in a laboratory environment in 1995.

The three scientists involved in that research won the 2001 Nobel Prize for their efforts.

They used a specially equipped camera on board the ISS called Cold Atom Laboratory (LAB) that manipulates ultracold quantum gases in microgravity. It consists of two containers. The largest container is called the quad locker & # 39; and the smallest container is called & # 39; single locker & # 39 ;.

They used a specially equipped camera on board the ISS called Cold Atom Laboratory (LAB) that manipulates ultracold quantum gases in microgravity. It consists of two containers. The largest container is called the quad locker & # 39; and the smallest container is called & # 39; single locker & # 39 ;.

They used a specially equipped camera on board the ISS called Cold Atom Laboratory (LAB) that manipulates ultracold quantum gases in microgravity. It consists of two containers. The largest container is called the quad locker & # 39; and the smallest container is called & # 39; single locker & # 39 ;.

In the intervening years, hundreds of experiments have been carried out in enigmatic clouds, and some were even sent to space with rockets.

On Earth, atomic traps, or frictionless containers made of magnetic fields or focused lasers, must be turned off to study the gas clouds.

The gravity of the Earth, however, destroys them in fractions of a second.

WHAT ARE THE BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATES?

The Bose-Einstein condensates are clouds of ultra-cold atoms first theorized by Satyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein 71 years ago.

In this state, the condensates are a "superfluid", with zero viscosity.

This allows the atoms to move without friction as if they were all a single solid substance.

Then, they can be observed by scientists more like waves than particles, since the rows move among themselves like "mysterious waveforms".

The researchers hope to study them to understand the fundamental principles of how gravity interacts with the tiniest particles.

The Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL) was created by NASA's Jet Propulsion Lab. CAL launched into orbit in May and hopes to shed light on where gravity fits into the murky waters of quantum physics.

The Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL) was created by NASA's Jet Propulsion Lab. CAL launched into orbit in May and hopes to shed light on where gravity fits into the murky waters of quantum physics.

The Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL) was created by NASA's Jet Propulsion Lab. CAL launched into orbit in May and hopes to shed light on where gravity fits into the murky waters of quantum physics.

The microgravity of the CAL space station allows scientists to observe individual BECs from five to 10 seconds at a time, allowing for more readings and measurements.

The CAL also allows astronauts to perform several different experiments in a day.

"CAL is an extremely complicated instrument," said Robert Shotwell, chief engineer of the Directorate of Astronomy and Physics at JPL, who oversaw the challenging project since February 2017.

"Typically, BEC experiments involve enough equipment to fill a room and require almost constant monitoring by scientists, while CAL is the size of a small refrigerator and can be operated remotely from Earth.

HOW IS ISS CAL EXPERIMENT GENERATES BECS?

At extremely low temperatures, the atoms form a state known as the Bose-Einstein condenstate.

In this state, the condensates are a "superfluid", with zero viscosity.

This allows the atoms to move without friction as if they were all a single solid substance.

In the microgravity of the International Space Station, these atoms will be able to retain their waveforms for much longer than on Earth, giving scientists a longer window in their behavior.

Researchers predict that the configuration will allow condensates to be observable for up to five to 10 seconds, and one day, this could rise to hundreds of seconds.

"It was a struggle and required a significant effort to overcome all the obstacles necessary to produce the sophisticated facilities that operate today in the space station."

The installation consists of two containers, which consist of the largest "quad cabinet" and the smallest "individual cabinet".

In addition to the BECs made from rubidium atoms, the CAL team is working to make BEC using two different isotopes of potassium atoms.

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