Self-driving cars often use a combination of normal two-dimensional cameras & depth-resistant & # 39; LiDAR & # 39; units to recognize the world around them.
Others, however, use cameras with visible light that capture images of roads and streets.
They are trained with a wealth of information and huge databases of hundreds of thousands of clips that are processed using artificial intelligence to accurately identify people, signs and dangers.
With LiDAR (light detection and range) scanning – used by Waymo – one or more lasers send short pulses that jump back when they hit an obstacle.
These sensors constantly scan the surrounding areas for information and act as the & # 39; eyes & # 39; of the car.
While the units provide in-depth information, their low resolution makes it difficult to detect small, distant objects without the help of a normal camera attached to it in real time.
In November last year, Apple revealed details about its car-free car system that uses lasers to remotely detect pedestrians and cyclists.
The Apple researchers said they had & # 39; very encouraging results & # 39; could be achieved by spotting pedestrians and cyclists with only LiDAR data.
They also wrote that they were able to defeat other approaches to detecting three-dimensional objects that only use LiDAR.
Other self-driving cars & # 39; s generally rely on a combination of cameras, sensors, and lasers.
An example is Volvo & # 39; s self-driving cars that depend on around 28 cameras, sensors and lasers.
A network of computers processes information, which together with GPS generates a real-time map of moving and stationary objects in the area.
Twelve ultrasonic sensors around the car are used to identify objects close to the vehicle and support autonomous driving at low speeds.
A wave radar and camera on the windscreen reads traffic signs and the curvature of the road and can detect objects on the road, such as other road users.
Four radars behind the front and rear bumpers also locate objects.
Two long-range radars on the bumper are used to detect fast-moving vehicles approaching from afar, which is useful on highways.
Four cameras – two on the side mirrors, one on the grille and one on the rear bumper – monitor objects in the immediate vicinity of the vehicle and lane markings.