Last year the second hottest ever recorded
Last year was officially the second hottest year ever recorded, revealing shocking figures.
Data from European scientists at Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) also show that 2019 was the hottest ever in Europe, as many regions suffered heat waves and droughts.
The data confirm the worst predictions from earlier research at the end of last year, which predicted that 2019 would be the second or second best.
New data now shows that the average temperature worldwide was only 0.04 ° C lower than in 2016, which was the hottest year ever.
This was due to the ‘El Nino’ phenomenon from the last century in 2016, which raised the average surface temperature of the earth by 0.12 ° C.
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Last year was officially the second hottest year ever recorded, revealing shocking figures from European scientists at Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S)
Greenhouse gases continued to rise and reached record highs in 2019, making this year one of the hottest ever. Constant computer models will probably be the second or third hottest year ever, after the freakish warm year of 2016
The last five years have been the hottest on record, and the 2010-2019 period was the hottest decade since the start of the records, C3S said.
Worldwide temperatures in 2019 were 0.6 ° C warmer than the average for 1981-2010.
The temperature on Earth during the last five years was 1.1 ° C-1.2 ° C warmer than pre-industrial times.
“2019 was another exceptionally warm year, in fact the second warmest in the world in our dataset, with many of the individual months breaking records,” said Carlo Buontempo, head of C3S.
CO2 concentrations are now also officially the highest they have reached for at least 800,000 years.
The United Nations said last year that man-made greenhouse gas emissions had to fall by 7.6 percent each year until 2030 to limit temperature rises to 1.5 ° C – the more ambitious cap countries signed up to the historic Paris climate agreement .
Current promises to reduce emissions put the Earth on a path of varying degrees of global warming towards the end of the century.
Climate-related disasters occurred in the first week of 2020, such as the fires in Southeast Australia and floods that killed dozens of people in Indonesia.
The analysis of satellite data indicates that the carbon dioxide concentration has continued to rise in recent years, also in 2019
Climate-related disasters took place in the first week of 2020, such as the fires in Southeast Australia (photo) and floods that killed dozens of people in Indonesia
Already in 2019 there have been deadly heat waves in Europe, Australia and Japan, super storms destroyed Southeast Africa and forest fires raging out of control in Australia and California (photo)
On the back of the shocking report, the WMO warns that rising temperatures are the cause of rising sea levels, melting ice, heat waves and floods that occurred ‘once in the century’. Pictured: flood water after heavy rainfall in Doncaster
The report was released at the UN climate change conference in Madrid, where it was also revealed every decade since the 1980s has been warmer than the previous and urgent action needed to reduce emissions. Pictured: a car is partially submerged in flood water near Lincoln in the November floods
Scientists say that such disasters become more frequent and intense as the temperatures rise.
The UN estimates that around 20 million people were displaced by climate-related disasters in 2019.
“The past five years have been the warmest ever; the last decade has been the hottest ever, “said Copernicus director Jean-Noel Thepaut.
“These are undoubtedly alarming signals.”
The Copernicus program uses observations from various satellites, weather stations and weather balloons to produce global and regional climate data that can be compared to historical temperature data in the short term.
The 2019 assessment shows both exceptional levels of short-term heat and a continuation of long-term global warming.
Last year saw the most pronounced warming in Alaska and other parts of the Arctic, as well as large parts of Eastern and Southern Europe, South Africa and Australia.
In Europe, all seasons were warmer than the average, with different countries registering both high summer and winter temperatures. December 2019 was 3.2C warmer than the 1981-2010 reference period, C3S said.
Australia was also three degrees warmer than historical averages in December, the Bureau of Meteorology said.
WHAT IS THE EL NINO PHENOMENON IN THE PACIFIC OCEAN?
El Niño and La Niña are the warm and cool phases (respectively) of a recurring tropical Pacific Ocean phenomenon – the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, or simply “ENSO.”
The pattern can switch back and forth irregularly every two to seven years and each phase causes predictable disturbances in temperature, wind and precipitation.
These changes disrupt the air movement and affect the global climate.
ENSO has three phases:
- El Nino: A warming of the ocean surface, or above-average sea surface temperatures (SST), in the central and eastern tropical Pacific. Rainfall in Indonesia is being reduced while rainfall in the tropical Pacific is increasing. The low-level superficial winds that normally blow from east to west along the equator, weaken instead or, in some cases, begin to blow the other direction from west to east.
- La Niña: A cooling of the ocean surface or below average sea surface temperatures (SST) in the central and eastern tropical Pacific. Over Indonesia, rainfall tends to increase, while rainfall decreases over the central tropical Pacific. The normal eastern winds along the equator become even stronger.
- Neutral: Neither El Niño or La Niña. Often tropical SSTs in the Pacific are generally almost average.
Maps with the most experienced effects related to El Niño (‘warm episode’, top) and La Niña (‘cold episode’, bottom) in the period December to February, when both phenomena are strongest