A mysterious black hole surrounded by a thin & # 39; accretion & # 39; disk of gases and other cosmic debris that astronomers claim that & # 39; should not exist & # 39; was discovered in the heart of a spiral system.
NGC 3147, found about 130 million light-years away in the Draco constellation, was discovered by scientists who used the Hubble space telescope.
The super-massive black hole, which weighs about 250 million times more than the sun, should not have any disk matter according to Einstein & # 39; s theories of relativity.
That's because the black hole of NGC 3147 is currently starving & # 39; starving & # 39; is, due to a lack of material to feed in the region, and starving black holes usually don't have an attachment disc around them, experts say.
Instead, the light emitted from the object in the center of the NGC 3147 mimics the behavior of a super-heavy black hole in the centers of much more active galaxies.
A mysterious black hole surrounded by a thin & # 39; accretion & # 39; disk of gases and other cosmic debris that astronomers claim that & # 39; should not exist & # 39; was discovered in the heart of a spiral system. Pictured: the impression of an artist that the stop disc swims around in the super-black hole
WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT NGC 3147?
Galaxy NGC 3147 Galaxy is relatively close at a distance of approximately 130 million light years. It can be found in the constellation Draco, The Dragon.
The graceful, winding arms of the majestic Milky Way seem like a large spiral staircase that rushes through space. They are actually long orbits with young blue stars, pink nebulae and dust in silhouette.
The beauty of the galaxy belies the fact that there is a malnourished black hole in the middle of it. It is surrounded by a thin, compact disc of stars, gas, and dust that is trapped in a gravitational grind flow.
The gravity of the black hole is so intense that everything ventured into the neighborhood is sucked into the disc.
The disc is so deeply embedded in the intense gravitational field of the black hole that the light from the gas disc is adjusted, according to Einstein's theories of relativity.
This has given astronomers a unique view of the dynamic processes at work in the vicinity of a black hole.
An international team of researchers, including experts from the University of California, Santa Barbara and Johns Hopkins University, made the finding.
The disc with material circling around the black hole offers a unique opportunity to test Albert Einstein's theories of relativity.
It is so deeply embedded in the intense gravitational field of the black hole that the light from the gas disc is altered, according to Einstein's theories of relativity.
This has given astronomers a unique look at the dynamic processes at work near a black hole, researchers say.
& # 39; This is an intriguing look at a disk close to a black hole, so close that the speeds and intensity of gravity affect how we see the photons of light & # 39 ;, said the first author of the research, Stefano Bianchi, from the University of Roma Tre in Italy.
& # 39; The type of disk that we see is a scaled down quasar that we did not expect to exist.
& # 39; It is the same type of disk that we see in objects that are 1000 or even 100,000 times lighter.
& # 39; The predictions of current models for very weak active galaxies have clearly failed. & # 39;
NGC 3147 (top-to-bottom satellite image, left), found about 130 million light-years away in the Draco constellation, was discovered by scientists using the Hubble Space Telescope. The super-heavy black hole (from top to bottom artist & # 39; s impression, right) should not have a disk of matter that surrounds it, according to Einstein's theories of relativity
The black hole of the NGC 3147 (pictured, glowing in the center) is currently & # 39; starved & # 39 ;, due to lack of feeding material in the region, and starved black holes usually do not have an accretion disk around them, experts say
WHAT ARE BLACK HOLES?
Black holes are so dense and their gravity is so strong that no form of radiation can escape – not even light.
They act as intense sources of gravity that sweat dust and gas around them. Their intense gravity is supposed to be what stars revolve in galaxies.
How they are formed is still poorly understood. Astronomers believe that they can form as a large gas cloud up to 100,000 times larger than the sun falls into a black hole.
Many of these black hole seeds then merge into much larger super-heavy black holes, which are located in the center of any known massive galaxy.
Alternatively, a super heavy black hole seed can come from a giant star, about 100 times the mass of the sun, which eventually turns into a black hole after it runs out of fuel and collapses.
When these giant stars die, they also go to & # 39; supernova & # 39 ;, a huge explosion that drives the matter from the outer layers of the star into the deep space.
To study the matter that swirled deep into this disc, the researchers used the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) instrument.
This diagnostic tool divides the light of an object into its many individual wavelengths to determine the speed, temperature and other characteristics of the object with very high precision.
STIS was an integral part of effectively observing the low light area around the black hole, blocking the brilliant light from the galaxy.
The material of the disc was measured by Hubble to rotate around the black hole at more than 10 percent of the speed of light.
At such extreme speeds, the gas appears to brighten as it travels to the earth on one side and dims as it speeds away from our planet on the other. This effect is known as radiant relativism.
Hubble & # 39; s observations also show that the gas is so deeply embedded in a gravity source that light is struggling to escape and therefore appears to be stretched to redder wavelengths.
The astronomers initially selected this galaxy to validate accepted models over active galaxies with lower brightness: those with malnourished black holes.
These models predict that slices of material must be formed when large amounts of gas are trapped by the strong gravity of a black hole, and then emit a lot of light and produce a brilliant beacon called a quasar.
& # 39; We have never seen the effects of both general and special relativity in visible light with so much brightness & # 39 ;, said AURA team member Marco Chiaberge for ESA, STScI and Johns Hopkins University.
The full findings of the study were published in the journal Monthly announcements from the Royal Astronomical Society.
Light emitted from the object (artist & # 39; s impression, right) in the center of NGC 3147 (left) mimics the behavior of a super-heavy black hole in the centers of much more active galaxies
WHAT IS IN A BLACK HOLE?
Black holes are strange objects in the universe that owe their name to the fact that nothing can escape their gravity, not even light.
If you venture too close and cross the so-called event horizon, the point from which no light can escape, you will also be trapped or destroyed.
For small black holes you would never survive such a & # 39; n approach.
The tidal forces close to the event horizon are sufficient to stretch all matter until it is just a series of atoms, in a process that physicists & # 39; spaghetti identification & # 39; to mention.
But for large black holes, such as the super-massive objects on the nuclei of galaxies such as the Milky Way, which weigh tens of millions, if not billions of times, the mass of a star, exceeding the event horizon would be quiet.
Because it should be possible to survive the transition from our world to the black-hole world, physicists and mathematicians have long wondered what that world would look like.
They have turned to Einstein's comparisons of general relativity to predict the world in a black hole.
These comparisons work well until an observer reaches the center or the singularity, where in theoretical calculations the curvature of space-time becomes infinite.
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