How time travel can work: expert explains Stephen Hawking's latest prediction

Stephen Hawking explored the boundaries of human understanding, both in the vastness of space and in the bizarre sub-molecular world of quantum theory.

In addition to numerous best-selling books, Hawking also published several important scientific articles during an illustrious research career.

Through his pioneering theories, the legendary physicist examined the origin of the universe and helped explain the behavior of black holes.

Stephen Hawking, who tried to explain some of the most complicated life questions while working in the shadow of a probable premature death, died at the age of 76.

Stephen Hawking, who tried to explain some of the most complicated life questions while working in the shadow of a probable premature death, died at the age of 76.

1970 Space-time in black holes

One of Hawking's key ideas was how space and time respond within the cruel limits of black holes.

Black holes are areas in space with a gravitational field so intense that no radiation or radiation can escape.

The objects are so powerful that they bend time and space in bizarre ways, and in 1970 Hawking showed how black holes & # 39; space-time & # 39; change.

& # 39; Space-time & # 39; is a theory used by physicists to describe the fusion of 3D space and time in a four-dimensional continuum.

Until the 1970s, physicists had known that Einstein's theory left room for singularities & # 39; – points where space-time seemed to be infinitely curved.

But it was unclear whether these singularities really existed or not.

Birkbeck College physicist Sir Roger Penrose showed that singularities exist because they can form in black holes.

In addition to Sir Penrose, Hawking applied the same idea in 1970 entirely to the universe.

They showed that Einstein's theory predicted a singularity in our distant past: The Big Bang.

1971-72 Black hole mechanics

Black holes are areas in space with a gravitational field so intense that no radiation or radiation can escape.

Their field is so intense that they form their own set of physical laws, unlike anything else in the universe.

Hawking conceived the second law of black holes, which states that the total surface of a black hole will never be smaller.

In separate work, Hawking led to the & # 39; no-hair & # 39; set of black holes.

This states that black holes can be characterized by three numbers – their mass, charge and angular momentum.

The & # 39; hair & # 39; in the idea of ​​Hawking is other information that disappears when it falls into the black hole.

1974-75 How black holes disappear

Hawking showed that black holes generate heat and eventually disappear in an extremely slow process.

While a black hole with the mass of the sun would last longer than the age of our universe to evaporate, smaller ones disappear.

Towards the end of their lives, they release heat quite quickly, with a medium sized black hole that releases the energy of a million hydrogen bombs in just a tenth of a second.

Hawking & # 39; s used quantum theory & # 39; for the finding – the branch of physics that deals with how the universe works at a subatomic level.

Through his pioneering theories, the legendary physicist helped explain the behavior of black holes (artist & # 39; s impression) and investigated the origin of the universe

Through his pioneering theories, the legendary physicist helped explain the behavior of black holes (artist & # 39; s impression) and investigated the origin of the universe

Through his pioneering theories, the legendary physicist helped explain the behavior of black holes (artist & # 39; s impression) and investigated the origin of the universe

1982 How galaxies arise

Many physicists believe that the universe is quickly blown up shortly after the Big Bang.

Hawking was one of the first to show how galaxies can be formed during this explosion of time and space.

He discovered that quantum fluctuations – small variations in the distribution of matter – evolved into the galaxies that are present in the cosmos.

This is because the strong gravitational forces clump the matter together.

Hawking's theory is supported by recent observations of the weak afterglow of the Big Bang, which saw the kind of variations with which Hawking worked.

1983 How the universe began

Hawking is best known for his attempts to combine two major theories of physics: Einstein's quantum theory and general relativity.

Although quantum theory describes how small subatomic particles attach the structure of our universe to each other, general relativity is about larger objects.

It describes how galaxies, stars, black holes, planets and more interact with each other through gravity.

Much of Hawking's work concentrated on combining quantum theory and general relativity with Einstein's gravitational theory.

He suggested that this new theory, known as quantum gravity, could fill many of the gaps of our current understanding of physics and the universe.

In 1983, the physicist collaborated with Professor Jim Hartle of the University of Chicago to create a "wave function of the universe." to propose.

This concept is known as the state of Hartle-Hawking and is meant to find out how the universe started with quantum mechanics.

In theory, this could be used to understand the properties of the universe around us.

1988 A brief history of the times

Hawking's bestselling book A Brief History of Time has sold more than ten million copies since it was published in 1988.

The book, which described the structure, origin, development and eventual fate of the universe, was a surprise success for the relatively unknown physicist, who remained in the Sunday Times bestseller list for 237 weeks.

Hawking wrote the book for readers without knowledge of scientific theories.

The physicist joked that many people who owned the book struggled to understand its complexity and never finished it.

The book eventually drove Hawking to the constellation, where the physicist published or co-published a total of 15 books or wrote or played a leading role in several scientific documentaries, television shows, films and more.

What happened before the Big Bang?

At the time of the Big Bang, 13.8 billion years ago, all matter in the universe broke out of a singularity to create the cosmos.

But scientists are not sure what happened before that time.

In a recent TV interview, Hawking said: "There was nothing for the Big Bang."

Instead, time and space existed in a & # 39; curved state & # 39; it was distorted along another dimension.

The physicist believes that the Big Bang was the formation of what we now consider as time, because the event has broken the laws of physics.

This means that everything that precedes it can not be applied to our understanding of time and existence.

By Harry Pettit, science and technology reporter

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