Having children on Mars will be & # 039; a titanic challenge & # 039;

Researchers say that newborns face a lot of problems and warn that basic reproductive processes simply can not work in the Martian atmosphere.

The researchers cautioned that babies born on Mars could face a "titanic" amount of problems, from large amounts of radiation to psychological problems.

While Elon Musk and others begin to work on the hardware that could soon establish a Martian colony, experts have begun to analyze how reproduction could work on the red planet.

They say they will face a lot of problems and warn that basic reproductive processes simply can not work in the Martian atmosphere, and that abortions could be much more common.

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Researchers say that newborns face a lot of problems and warn that basic reproductive processes simply can not work in the Martian atmosphere.

Researchers say that newborns face a lot of problems and warn that basic reproductive processes simply can not work in the Martian atmosphere.

COULD MARS LEAD TO A NEW & # 39; SPECIES & # 39; OF HUMAN?

Dr. Soloman, who works at Rice University in Houston, believes that the Martian climate will cause a darkening of our skin through the carotenoid pigments, which are found in bright yellow and orange foods, such as pumpkin and carrots, which will be grown on the planet.

And our bones can thicken to cope with reduced levels of severity.

While these changes would take millions of years to occur on Earth, Dr. Soloman argues that they could occur within 6,000 years on Mars.

Mars receives six times the annual amount of radiation on Earth, and this can help trigger the accelerated changes.

Dr. Soloman has published a book about the future evolution of humanity.

Speaking on it, the Texan scientist said: "This (evolution) happens routinely to animals and isolated plants on the islands, think of Darwin's famous finches.

"But while speciation on the islands may take thousands of years, the rate of accelerated mutation on Mars and the strong contrasts between conditions on Mars and Earth would probably accelerate the process."

"Mars is under consideration as the next planet beyond Earth to support continuous human exploration," wrote the team led by Konrad Szocik, a cognitive scientist at the Polish University of Information Technology and Management in Rzezow and lead author of the Article. Futures magazine.

"Unfortunately, this effort comes with titanic challenges in various disciplines, from space travel technology to medical, biological, social and ethical challenges."

"We assume that human reproduction in a settlement on Mars will be necessary for the long-term success of a mission in outer space.

However, the team concluded that "human reproductive processes in the space environment may fail".

Radiation is one of the main problems facing births.

Because the atmosphere of Mars is so thin, cosmic radiation represents a much greater threat to any human being on its surface and to any other.

Mars receives six times the annual amount of radiation on Earth, and this can help trigger the accelerated changes.

The researchers say this could cause problems in fetal development, especially because early travelers will also experience greater exposure to cosmic radiation during their trip to Mars.

"It is known that radiation is harmful to adults and especially to reproductive cells, the development of embryos and fetuses, and is already considered an important danger to the health of astronauts," the researchers wrote.

Another major problem is probably the different gravity on Mars, which is much less than on Earth.

Matt Damon in the Martian. While Elon Musk and others begin to work on the hardware that could soon establish a Martian colony, experts have begun to analyze how reproduction could work on the red planet.

Matt Damon in the Martian. While Elon Musk and others begin to work on the hardware that could soon establish a Martian colony, experts have begun to analyze how reproduction could work on the red planet.

Matt Damon in the Martian. While Elon Musk and others begin to work on the hardware that could soon establish a Martian colony, experts have begun to analyze how reproduction could work on the red planet.

NASA studies have already found that long periods of time in orbit can cause bone loss and affect fluid levels in the eyes and spinal cord of astronauts, leading to loss of vision.

"Another important factor will be the high stress rate and the harsh psychological conditions in general," the team said.

"Another factor may be a diet that may be insufficient to provide the right ingredients."

The team also says that abortion could be much more common.

"In the context of a Martian colony, we believe that the abortion policy would be liberal compared to the Earth.

"Abortion should be acceptable in cases where pregnancy represents a high risk for the mother and when the fetuses have severe conditions that are not suitable for life in the womb."

However, the team concludes that all these obstacles are likely to be overcome.

"The birth of a healthy human outside of Earth is in itself a statement of our abilities as a species, and indicates our potential to successfully explore the universe.

"Life on Mars will be different from our life on Earth, and so will the reproduction that engenders it."

HOW DO I CHANGE SCOTT KELLY'S DNA IN SPACE?

After 340 days aboard the International Space Station, US astronaut Scott Kelly returned to Earth in March 2016.

Since then, NASA has conducted tests to study the effects that life in orbit had on Kelly using its identical twin brother, Mark, who remained on Earth, as a control subject.

The Kelly brothers have almost identical genomes, allowing unprecedented insight into the physical effects of long-term space flight.

While astronaut Scott Kelly (right) lived aboard the International Space Station for 340 days, his identical twin brother Mark (left) remained on Earth, and researchers have now found a number of differences between the two

While astronaut Scott Kelly (right) lived aboard the International Space Station for 340 days, his identical twin brother Mark (left) remained on Earth, and researchers have now found a number of differences between the two

While astronaut Scott Kelly (right) lived aboard the International Space Station for 340 days, his identical twin brother Mark (left) remained on Earth, and researchers have now found a number of differences between the two

Blood and other biological samples were obtained from the couple before, during and after Scott Kelly's mission.

The agency discovered that Kelly came home 5 cm (2 inches) taller than her twin: a change was resolved within two days of her return.

The difference in height was caused by the microgravity conditions of the ISS that lengthen the spine, but the effect was only temporary.

NASA found that while 93% of Kelly's genes returned to normal shortly after returning home, 7% were permanently altered.

These long-term changes affect genes related to the immune system, DNA repair, bone formation and the way your tissues absorb oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Kelly's telomeres, the caps at the end of each chromosome, lengthened in space.

Telomeres are key to protecting DNA from damage and tend to shorten with age. Kelly's telomeres shortened once she returned to Earth.

The scientists reported their preliminary results at a meeting of NASA's Human Research Program in January 2017. In the photo, some of the areas studied by the team

The scientists reported their preliminary results at a meeting of NASA's Human Research Program in January 2017. In the photo, some of the areas studied by the team

The scientists reported their preliminary results at a meeting of NASA's Human Research Program in January 2017. In the photo, some of the areas studied by the team

NASA says Kelly's elongated telomeres are related to her diet and exercise routine at the station.

The proportion of two groups of intestinal bacteria shifted while Kelly was in space, probably due to her change in diet. This also returned to normal shortly after his return.

NASA's research has detected hundreds of divergent genetic mutations in the Kelly and Mark genomes.

The research team speculates that a "space gene" could have been activated while Kelly was in orbit.

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