More than 8,000 Unison and GMB members left on a 48-hour strike Tuesday.
About 12,500 workers, mostly women, are processing complaints against the council following a decision by the Court of Session last year.
The council said the strike was unnecessary, since it hopes to reach an agreement soon and start paying in the next fiscal year.
Many strikers manned pickets around the city and then joined a march from Glasgow Green to George Square for a rally, chanting: "Equal pay or we're leaving."
The Glasgow City Council said that all establishments in the early years, additional support for the apprenticeship schools (ASL) and the general primaries will close on both days, but all general high schools will remain open.
Home care services for some 6,000 people are also affected.
The workers at the picket line at the Mitchell Library said they expected the strike to pressure the Council to speed up the process.
Anna Murray, a library cleaning supervisor who has worked there for 25 years, said: "We have waited 10 years to receive the same salary and the council does not seem to be doing anything to pay for it, so we have gone to Strike.
"We hope the council accelerates things and receives an equal salary for the people who are waiting for it."
Annette Tompson, another cleaning supervisor at The Mitchell, where she has worked for 17 years, added: "It has taken a long, long time, we have been in the employment court, in the court, in the Court of Sessions and have found to our favor and the council still does not pay us, they know that they owe us the money, but it's really getting longer. "
The unions said that the members regret the action, but hope that people understand that they have waited a long time for equality. Unison regional organizer Mandy McDowall said: "This strike comes after 10 years of litigation in the courts.
"Last year, the courts agreed with us that the council's salary scheme was uneven and invalid and they sent us back to negotiate a new salary scheme and settle pay equity claims for thousands of women across Glasgow.
"In 10 months and 21 meetings of negotiations we have not got anywhere, there is no detail on the table that allows us to have confidence that the council will meet the December deadline."
The local authority said it explored all options to avoid the strike.
The Glasgow City Council leader, Susan Aitken, said: "The strike will have a devastating impact and there is no need to do so." They won their case the day the SNP was elected to head the Glasgow City Council and we have been working ever since. to do them justice.
"We are very close to that and I am confident that they will obtain the agreement to which they are entitled and we will begin to pay in the next financial year."
The council introduced its Workforce Benefits and Payment Review (WPBR) and its rating scheme in 2006 to address inequalities.
Some workers say that the way it is structured led to people in roles dominated by women receiving a payment of up to £ 3 per hour less than those in male-dominated roles.
It is said that some women have paid up to £ 4,000 a year less than their male counterparts.