This month marks the 50th anniversary of the moment when humans first set foot on the moon when Apollo 11 landed on July 20, 1969 on the Sea of Tranquility.
It is one of the most iconic and memorable moments in the history of humanity, but it is often plagued with bizarre claims that it was a complicated trick.
Astronauts and academics are amazed at the incredible claims and Howard Berry, head of post-production and program director MA Film and television production at the University of Hertfordshire, wrote an article for The conversation debunking of the most common myths.
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Astronaut Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, the pilot of the lunar module, walks on the surface of the moon near the leg of the Lunar Module & # 39; Eagle & # 39; during the first manned moon landing of Apollo 11 on July 20, 1969
It's been half a century since the beautiful moon landing of Apollo 11, yet many people still don't believe it actually happened.
Conspiracy theories about the event dating back to the 1970s are in fact more popular than ever.
A general theory is that film director Stanley Kubrick helped NASA falsify the historical images of his six successful lunar landings.
But would it really have been possible to do that with the technology that was available at the time? I am not a space travel expert, an engineer or a scientist.
I am a filmmaker and teacher in post-production of films, and although I cannot say how we landed on the moon in 1969, I can say with some certainty that the images were impossible to forge.
Here are some of the most common beliefs and questions – and why they don't stop.
Conspiracy theories about the event dating back to the 1970s are in fact more popular than ever. A general theory is that film director Stanley Kubrick (photo) helped NASA falsify the historical images of his six successful moon landings
This NASA photo by Neil Armstrong on July 20, 1969 shows astronaut Buzz Aldrin on the moon's calm sea. It is one of the most iconic events in the history of humanity, but is often plagued by claims that it is a complicated trick
& # 39; The moon landings were filmed in a TV studio. & # 39;
There are two different ways to capture moving images. One is film, actual strips of photographic material on which a series of images is shown.
Another is video, an electronic method for recording on various media, such as moving magnetic tape. With video you can also send to a television receiver.
A standard movie film records images at 24 frames per second, while TV broadcasts are usually 25 or 30 frames, depending on where you are in the world.
If we assume that the moon landings have been recorded in a TV studio, then we expect that they will be 30 frames per second video, which was the television standard at the time.
However, we know that video from the first moon landing at ten frames per second was recorded in SSTV (Slow Scan television) with a special camera.
Apollo Lunar Television Camera, as it was mounted on the side of the Apollo 11 Lunar Module when it was Armstrong & # 39; s & # 39; One small step & # 39; broadcast. Howard Berry of the University of Hertfordshire reveals how the landing cold was not distorted
& # 39; They used the special Apollo camera in a studio and then delayed the footage to make sure it had less gravity. & # 39;
Some people claim that if you look at people moving in slow motion, they are in an environment with low gravity.
Slowing down the movie requires more frames than normal, so you start with a camera that can capture more frames in a second than a normal one – this is called overcranking.
When this is played back at the normal frame rate, this image is displayed for longer. If you can't take your camera too much, but you record at a normal frame rate, you can artificially slow down the footage instead, but you need a way to save the frames and generate new extra frames to slow it down .
At the time of the broadcast, magnetic disc recorders capable of storing slow motion images were able to capture a total of only 30 seconds, for playing 90 seconds of slow motion video.
To capture 143 minutes of slow motion, you must record and save 47 minutes of live action, which was simply not possible.
& # 39; They could have had an advanced storage recorder to make slow motion recordings. Everyone knows that NASA is getting the technology to the public. & # 39;
Well, maybe they had a super-secret extra storage recorder – but almost 3,000 times more advanced? Doubtful.
& # 39; They shot on film and delayed the film instead. You can film as much as you want to do this. Then they converted the film to be shown on TV. & # 39;
That is finally a bit of logic! But to film it on film would require thousands of meters of film. A typical reel of 35 mm film – with 24 frames per minute second – lasts 11 minutes and is 1,000 feet long.
If we apply this to 12 frames per second film (as close as ten as we can get with standard film) that runs 143 minutes (this is how long the Apollo 11 images last), you would need six and a half reels.
These should then be compiled.
The split joins, transfer of negatives and prints – and possibly grains, dots of dust, hair or scratches – would immediately give the game away.
None of these artifacts are present, which means that it was not recorded on film. If you take into account that the subsequent Apollo landings were filmed at 30 frames per second, they would be three times harder to be fake.
So the Apollo 11 mission would have been the easiest.
Apollo 12 Astronaut Charles & # 39; Pete & # 39; Conrad stands next to the American flag on the moon on November 19, 1969. The US returned to the surface of the moon several times after the success and fanfare of Apollo 11
The American astronaut Buzz Aldrin climbs 15 minutes after Neil Armstrong on July 21, 1969 from the lunar module & # 39; Eagle & # 39; down the ladder.
& # 39; But the flag is blowing in the wind and there is no wind on the moon. The wind is clearly coming from a fan in the studio. Or it was filmed in the desert. & # 39;
That's not it. After the flag is released, it softly stabilizes and does not move at all in the remaining images. And how much wind is there in a TV studio?
There is wind in the desert, I accept that.
But in July the desert is also very hot and you can normally see heat waves that occur on recordings that have been recorded in warm places.
There are no heat waves on the moon landing footage, so it was not filmed in the desert. And the flag still doesn't move.
& # 39; The lighting in the footage clearly comes from a spot. The shadows look strange. & # 39;
Yes, it is a spotlight – a spotlight, at a distance of 93m. It is called the sun.
Look at the shadows in the footage. If the light source were a nearby spotlight, the shadows would arise from a central point.
But because the source is so far away, the shadows in most places are parallel and do not deviate from a single point.
That said, the sun is not the only source of illumination – light is also reflected from the ground.
This may cause some shadows not to appear in parallel. It also means that we can see objects in the shadow.
& # 39; Well, we all know that Stanley Kubrick filmed it. & # 39;
Stanley Kubrick could have been asked to fake the moon landings.
But because he was such a & # 39; n perfectionist, he insisted on photographing him on location.
And it is well documented that he did not like flying, so that goes around it … Next?
& # 39; It is possible to recreate mosquito dinosaurs like they did in Jurassic Park, but the government keeps it a secret. & # 39;
I give up.
WHAT WAS THE APOLLO PROGRAM?
NASA photo taken on July 16, 1969 shows the huge, 363-foot-long Apollo 11 spacecraft 107 / Lunar Module S / Saturn 506) spacecraft launched from Pad A, launch complex 39. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), at 9:32 am (EDT ).
Apollo was the NASA program that was launched in 1961 and got people on the moon.
The first four flights tested the equipment for the Apollo program and six of the seven other flights managed to land on the moon.
The first manned mission to the moon was Apollo 8, which circled around it on Christmas Eve in 1968 but did not land.
The crew of Apollo 9 spent ten days around the Earth and completed the first manned flight of the lunar module – the portion of the Apollo rocket that would later land Neil Armstrong on the moon.
The Apollo 11 mission was the first to land on the moon on July 20, 1969.
The capsule landed on the Sea of Tranquility and transported mission commander Neil Armstrong and pilot Buzz Aldrin.
Armstrong and Aldrin walked across the surface of the moon while Michael Collins orbit around the moon.
When Armstrong became the first person to walk on the moon, he said: & # 39; That's a small step for (a) man; a giant leap for humanity. & # 39;
Apollo 12 landed later that year on November 19 on the ocean of storms, writes NASA.
Apollo 13 would be the third mission to land on the moon, but just under 56 hours in the air, an explosion of the oxygen tank forced the crew to cancel the moon landing and go to the Aquarius lunar module to return to the Earth.
Apollo 15 was the ninth manned lunar mission in the Apollo space program and considered the most successful manned space flight at that time because of the long duration and greater emphasis on scientific exploration than was possible with previous missions.
The last Apollo moon landing happened in 1972 after a total of 12 astronauts had landed on the surface of the moon.
Astronaut Edwin & # 39; Buzz & # 39; Aldrin is experimenting with unpacking the lunar module on the moon during the Apollo 11 mission. Photographed by Neil Armstrong, July 20, 1969
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