English doctor from the 17th century prescribed patients with pigeon slippers and deer manure

Regulations such as carrying pigeons as slippers and diagnoses such as & # 39; witchcraft & # 39; the doctors from the 17th century left little in common with modern doctors.

But in one respect they are identical: their terrible handwriting.

So far, the unreadable medical notes from Simon Forman, the autodidactic & # 39; celebrity doctors & # 39; and his protégé Richard Napier, remained a mystery

However, researchers at the University of Cambridge have deciphered the texts of their 80,000 cases and put some of the records online.

The doctors paraded through Elizabethan England and claimed they could heal people from anything from witchcraft to & # 39; bloody flux & # 39 ;.

Consultation of the stars and an abundance of absurd treatments, including pigeon tills, inscribed cheese and dog liver.

The pair was considered & # 39; quack & # 39; through the medical field because they focused strongly on witchcraft and consulted angels to help treat their patients.

Many of their remedies focused on a combination of symbolism, religion, witchcraft and astrology, in addition to parts of the real world.

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The couple left notes on each of their 80,000 cases, but it was written in almost illegible writing and has long remained a mystery. Researchers from the University of Cambridge have now deciphered the texts and put some of the bizarre records online

The couple left notes on each of their 80,000 cases, but it was written in almost illegible writing and has long remained a mystery. Researchers from the University of Cambridge have now deciphered the texts and put some of the bizarre records online

The notoriously poor writing of medical experts included these 17th-century astrologer doctors, with experts who put their handwriting & # 39; horrible & # 39 ;, & # 39; messy & # 39; and & # 39; archaic & # 39; to mention.

That is why it took ten years of ongoing research to understand their words.

A select number of the most intriguing and unbelieving remedies have now been made readable online for the modern public.

They spent centuries in the Bodleian Library in Oxford and found themselves in 66 calf-bound volumes.

Richard Napier (photo) was the protégé of Richard Napier and continued his work after he died in 1611

Richard Napier (photo) was the protégé of Richard Napier and continued his work after he died in 1611

Simon Forman (photo) paraded through Elizabethan England and claimed to be able to heal people from everything from witchcraft to & # 39; bloody flux & # 39;

Simon Forman (photo) paraded through Elizabethan England and claimed to be able to heal people from everything from witchcraft to & # 39; bloody flux & # 39;

Simon Forman (right) and his protégé Richard Napier (left) paraded through Elizabethan England and claimed that they were able to heal people from witchcraft to & # 39; bloody flux & # 39 ;. Consultation of the stars and an abundance of absurd treatments, including dovecots, deer manure and cooked crab, were prescribed to patients

treatments

Many of the treatments involve cleansing, concoction, or blood release in an attempt to align the four moods – a belief that human health was dependent on a balance of mucus, blood, yellow bile and black bile.

Often treatments are aimed at removing a surplus from one to neutralize another.

It was a popular theory that was first founded by Hippocrates and abandoned when the world emerged from the dark Middle Ages and learned more about medicine and the body.

Malicious or suicidal thoughts were often considered witchcraft or demonic visitations, and the astrologers sold & # 39; counter-spells & # 39; of incantations, hints or blessed amulets.

Bad dreams, depression, and love sickness were just some of the symptoms they claimed to cure – in addition to venereal diseases, animal bites, and witchcraft.

The treatments often include a combination of magic, astronomy and primitive medicines and made countless unsupported and untrue claims.

Witchcraft

The data shows that a remarkable number of their patients were crippled by witchcraft.

The remarkable story of Edward Cleaver, who was a sickly 50-year-old who had had blood spilled seven times a year.

His agony meant that he was & # 39; seduced by profane and wicked thoughts and sometimes with an inner smile and laugh in his heart & # 39 ;.

It is thought that his bad thoughts (& # 39; kisse myne ass & # 39;) came from the witchcraft of a puppy-sucking neighbor.

Joan Broadbrok, who thought & # 39; her children like rats and mice & # 39; was another patient who was diagnosed with witchcraft.

The married 40-year-old was visited by the couple of doctors on Friday, June 14, 1605 at 6.45 am and claimed to be possessed of a & # 39; bad spirit & # 39 ;.

& # 39; The mind tells her he will burn her & drown her & seems to speak in her & # 39 ;, the notes reveal.

& # 39; A great rise in her stomach. Will take nothing. I can't sleep at all. Consider much very annoyed this 7 years worse than others. Think her children are rats and mice. & # 39;

Depression

Temperance Negoose or Dunton in Bedfordshire, 30, was visited on Tuesday, April 27, 1619, at 9:38 am and seemed to be struggling with symptoms of depression.

They write that they despaired & # 39; and offered to drown themselves & # 39; and God also doubted.

They prescribed her pigeon stock (& ​​# 39; a pig shaft and applied to the sole of each head & # 39;) to cure her condition. It is not stated whether it was successful.

Angels

Napier enjoyed the use of leeches and looked for second opinions from angels. They reportedly offered simple diagnoses, such as & he will soon die & # 39 ;.

This particular patient, John Mobs or Wolverton, 53, angel Asariel did not agree with the other angel, Michael, and said: & # 39; He is dead & # 39 ;.

Joan Carter of Denton, 27, was visited on Monday, June 17, 1611, 9.25 am and the doctors write that they have again consulted the angel Asariel.

The angel, they said, said to them: "It will do her good by God's grace."

Venereal disease

One of the most striking cases of someone suffering from a sexually transmitted disease is that of John Wilkinson.

He lost his hair to the & # 39; French disease & # 39; and claimed that the pain was akin to sharing in his guts with a rapier & # 39 ;.

One patient suffered from & # 39; smallpox, with boils and itching & # 39; and was prescribed a combination of roses, pansies, cooked crabs, and deer manure.

Animal bites

There are a large number of animal related problems, including bites.

Richard Read of Alderton, 21, was bitten by a crazy dog ​​and the doctor suggested the liver of the offending animals and a two-step procedure.

The doctors write: & # 39; 1 Head him three times with scars. 2 Garlic herb from cooked (?) Salt syrup. Apply and drink the same for a week's space. & # 39;

Edmond Hannell from Heath and Reach was 24 when he was seen by the doctors.

He was also bitten by a crazy dog, this time around the wrist.

Their treatment recommendation was: & # 39; Take a piece of cheese with certain words written on it and also the dog's liver. & # 39;

WHO WERE SIMON FORMAN AND RICHARD NAPIER?

Simon Forman (photo) paraded through Elizabethan England and claimed to be able to heal people from everything from witchcraft to & # 39; bloody flux & # 39;

Simon Forman (photo) paraded through Elizabethan England and claimed to be able to heal people from everything from witchcraft to & # 39; bloody flux & # 39;

Simon Forman (photo) paraded through Elizabethan England and claimed to be able to heal people from everything from witchcraft to & # 39; bloody flux & # 39;

Simon Forman and his protégé Richard Napier paraded through Elizabethan England and claimed they could heal people of everything from witchcraft to & # 39; bloody flux & # 39 ;.

Patients were prescribed consultation with the stars and an abundance of absurd treatments, including pigeon slippers, deer manure and cooked crab.

Simon Forman was a striking and master of occult arts who turned to healing after allegedly healing from the plague in 1592.

He settled in London as a doctor who could use the stars to determine illness or predict solutions to problems ranging from ghost, heart disease and lost hawks.

Richard Napier (photo) was the protégé of Richard Napier and continued his work after he died in 1611

Richard Napier (photo) was the protégé of Richard Napier and continued his work after he died in 1611

Richard Napier (photo) was the protégé of Richard Napier and continued his work after he died in 1611

He was hunted by the medical institution of that time, who considered him a & # 39; quack & # 39; but his popular practice was continued by Richard Napier, a rector of the country and his astrological protégé, when he died in 1611. Napier died in 1634.

The astrologers worked in an unusual way. Their patients asked them a question and they would consult the stars to receive a divine answer.

They hurriedly scribbled notes of times and dates that were important to the patient's treatment and added other information such as names, locations, and customer demand.

Their notes – which remained illegible for centuries – include hand-drawn astrological maps, a & # 39; judgment & # 39; and prescribed remedies.

& # 39; Our transcripts are the tip of the iceberg: thousands of pages of cryptic scribbles full of astral symbols, recipes for strange elixirs and details from the lives of gentlemen and chef masters who suffer from everything from dog bites to broken hearts, & # 39; said Professor Lauren Kassell, of Cambridge & # 39; s History and Philosophy of Science Department.

& # 39; It took ten years to review, edit and digitize all cases of Forman and Napier.

& # 39; The Casebooks Project has opened a wormhole in the dingy and enigmatic world of medicine, magic and occult seventeenth century.

& # 39; Channeled by the astrologers' pens are fragments of health issues and fertility concerns, enchantments and sexual desires from thousands of lives that would otherwise have been lost through history. & # 39;

The long project allowed the team to develop an intuition, they claim, for the meaning of the words, allowing them to crack it.

The transcripts including punctuation and modern spelling while the whole library is untouched.

"Napier produced most of the saved cases, but his handwriting was horrible and his plates were super messy," said Professor Kassell.

& # 39; Forman's writing is strangely archaic, as if he had read too many medieval manuscripts. These are notes that are only intended to be understood by the authors. & # 39;

They say that the presence of evil spirits occurs everywhere in the casebooks and that their unusual approach might be a & # 39; proto-therapy & # 39; has worked.

& # 39; For example, many women talked openly about their sex life and fear of fertility & # 39 ;, Professor Kassell added.

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