A train carrying a wide variety of toxic chemicals derailed in East Palestine, Ohio, on February 3.
Since then, some of those chemicals have been released into the air or on the ground, as residents worry about long-term health effects.
Among the chemicals released by the derailment are:
Vinyl chloride — Train operator Norfolk Southern has said 10 carriages were burning vinyl chloride, a known carcinogen. It is a highly volatile colorless gas. it is used to create polyvinyl chloride, a plastic used in pipes, cables, bottles, and credit cards.
Symptoms of vinyl chloride exposure include drowsiness, headaches, and dizziness. Longer term effects can include cancer and liver damage.
Hydrogen chloride — In trying to mitigate the effects of vinyl chloride, officials staged a controlled explosion of the train cars, releasing hydrogen chloride.
The chemical is irritating and corrosive to any tissue with which it comes in contact, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention warns
Brief exposure can cause throat irritation, but exposure to higher levels can cause rapid breathing, narrowing of the bronchioles, blue discoloration of the skin, fluid buildup in the lungs, and even death.
Phosgene — a chemical that was also released in the controlled explosion.
Like hydrogen chloride, phosgene irritates the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract.
Common initial symptoms include mild irritation of the eyes and throat, with some choking cough, nausea, occasional vomiting, headache, and a feeling of tightness in the chest.
Phosgene poisoning can also cause respiratory and cardiovascular failure, low blood pressure, and fluid buildup in the lungs.
ethylhexyl acrylate — a chemical substance that was transported on the train
It is a known carcinogen, which can cause burning and irritation of the skin and eyes. Inhalation of the substance may also irritate the nose and throat, causing shortness of breath and coughing.
isobutylene was also being transported on the train.
Inhalation of isobutylene may cause dizziness and drowsiness.
Ethylene glycol mobobutyl was another substance being shipped to Pennsylvania.
May cause eye, skin, nose, and throat irritation, as well as hematuria (or blood in the urine), nervous system depression, headache, and vomiting.