Steyn returned to international cricket after shoulder and foot injuries when he played in two events in Sri Lanka in July, but only took two fields at a cost of 89.50 runs each.
Subsequently, he has shown a return to form during a season with the English county of Hampshire, taking 20 fields in five first class matches with an average of 19.10.
Christiaan Jonker, who made 49 in a promising debut in the third and final international match of Twenty 20 against India in February, is the only newcomer to the team one day.
Batter David Miller and wicketkeeper-batsman Quinton de Kock have been rested for the one-day series, but will play in a Twenty20 series of three games.
Two batters without a crown, Gihahn Cloete and Rassie van der Dussen, were included in the Twenty20 squad.
Selection organizer Linda Zondi said the squads were part of an ongoing process to assess talent before the World Cup.
"We still have a series of one day after this against Australia, Pakistan and Sri Lanka as we approach the completion of our possible World Cup team," he said.
Faf du Plessis was appointed captain of both squadrons, subject to fitness assessments. He suffered a shoulder injury in Sri Lanka in August and said on his return to South Africa that he would miss the Zimbabwe series instead of returning to action too soon.
Cricket South Africa said in a statement that if Du Plessis was not fully fit, a replacement captain would be named closer to the moment.
One day squad: Faf du Plessis (captain), Hashim Amla, JP Duminy, Reeza Hendricks, Imran Tahir, Christiaan Jonker, Heinrich Klaasen (wkt), Keshav Maharaj, Aiden Markram, Wiaan Mulder, Lungi Ngidi, Andile Phehlukwayo, Kagiso Rabada, Tabraiz Shamsi, Dale Steyn, Khaya Zondo.
Twenty20 Squadron: Du Plessis (captain), Gihahn Cloete, Junior Dala, Quinton de Kock (wkt), JP Duminy, Robbie Frylinck, Imran Tahir, Jonker, Klaasen (wkt), David Miller, Ngidi, Dane Paterson, Phehlukwayo, Shamsi, Rassie van der Dussen
30 First International of a Day, Kimberley
3 Second International Day, Bloemfontein
6 Third international day, Paarl
9 First Twenty20 international, East London
12 Second Twenty20 international, Potchefstroom
14 Third Twenty20 international, Benoni