The oldest and largest crater on the moon was probably made by a powerful asteroid impact that evoked material from deep inside, scientists say.
Analysis of data from the Chang & e 39 mission in China has revealed substances from the inside of the moon on the surface of the crater where the probe landed.
The discoveries in the Von Karmann crater, where the mission landed in January, further prove that a huge collision occurred at least 3.9 billion years ago.
Researchers from the study have suggested the possibility of bringing the material back to Earth for further study.
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The oldest and largest crater on the moon probably came from a powerful asteroid impact that penetrated deep into the satellite. The Yutu-2 rover has studied material that can be found at the landing site, the Von Karmen crater (photo), which is located in the SPA basin
The Chang & # 39; e-4 mission from China landed on January 3. Yutu-2, the wanderer of the mission, has studied material at the landing site, in the smaller Von Karman crater that lies in the South Pole-Aitken basin (SPA).
The largest and oldest crater on Earth's satellite, the SPA basin, is located on the far moon side of about 2,500 km in diameter.
The Yutu-2 rover has the Von Karman crater and collecting samples it has now measured.
Looking at rock minerals in the crater, the Chang & e-4 probe from China has found parts of the moon's inner mantle on the surface of the crater. The image above shows where the SPA is located in relation to the south pole of the moon
Professor Chunlai Li and colleagues from the Chinese Academy of Sciences saw differences between the spectral data they obtained compared to the observed surface of the typical surface material on the moon.
The findings of the crater suggest the presence of low calcium pyroxene and olivine minerals, which may come from the upper mantle, on the surface.
The authors of the study claim that this material was excavated by an event penetrated below the SPA surface layer at a nearby 72-km-diameter Finnish crater crater event and transported to the landing site.
It probably came from a massive asteroid collision that happened billions of years ago.
The authors wrote: & # 39; Such a large basin would be the best candidate to have penetrated under the crust and deep into the moon's interior, to dig up the moon's cloak and distribute it on the surface in the form of ejecta emissions and impact melts & # 39;
These discoveries indicate that a collision event that occurred at least 3.9 billion years ago penetrated deep into the interior and brought it to the surface. The image shows the Chang & e-4 lander
The Yutu-2 robber of China & # 39; s Chang & # 39; E-4 mission (photo) has found material from the deep layers of the moon at the landing site on the other side of the moon.
& # 39; Evidence obtained from a spacecraft orbit shows that the floor of the SPA basin is rich in maize (richer in iron and magnesium) minerals, but their origin is controversial and their in situ geological settings are poorly known.
Continuous exploration by Yutu-2 will focus these materials on the bottom of the Von Kármán crater to understand their geological context, origin and abundance, and to assess the possibility of sample-return scenarios.
The detailed structure of the moon's mantle has been avoided for years by researchers, and to solve this problem the focus is on impact craters.
It is thought that the events that led to their creation have invaded the crust into the moon's interior, dug out parts of the mantle and spread it on the surface.
The findings can provide further insights into the composition of the moon's mantle.
The full report has been published in Nature.
WHAT IS THE SPA WATER?
The South Pole Aitken (SPA) is the oldest and largest crater or & # 39; impact basin & # 39; on the moon.
The diameter is approximately 2,500 km or 1,550 miles. The circumference of the moon is a little less than 11,000 km, which means that the basin extends over almost a quarter of the moon.
The basin is more than 8 km deep and is littered with smaller craters in it and covers almost a quarter of the circumference of the satellite.
Moon monsters suggest that most of the Moon's large basins were formed around 3.9 billion years ago in a period called the late heavy bombing.
Scientists are trying to gather more information about this episode and its wider significance for the solar system.
During this period, major effects occurred almost simultaneously and scientists believe that this impact created the SPA basin, either 3.9 billion years ago or earlier.
Such a large number of major consequences that occur almost simultaneously may be due to an unusual gravitational dynamic in the early solar system.
If so, that impact is strong evidence that it was an extreme event that would have affected all planets in the solar system, including the Earth.
However, if the basin is much older than 3.9 million years, then it is a peak earlier and much more staggered events.
Scientists take samples from the inside of the basin and use radiometric age dating techniques to determine when they were last melted, to find out their age.
Impact heat would have melted a large amount of material, resetting radiometric clocks.
But the basin is so old that the surface has been cratered many times, meaning that some of the rocks would have had their radiometric ages reset by these successive impacts.
So it can be hard to find rocks with ages that really reflect the SPA event without carefully considering local geology.
The Chinese mission made the very first landing across the street at 10.26 a.m. local time (2.26 a.m. GMT),
The other side of the moon – generally known as the dark side – actually receives just as much light as the near side, but is always away from the earth. This is because the moon is nicely locked on the earth and rotates at the same speed as our planet, so the other side – or the & # 39; dark side & # 39; – is never visible from our planet.
This relatively unexplored region is mountainous and rugged, making a successful landing much more difficult to achieve.
The Chang & e-4 has studied the famous Von Karman crater in the Aitken basin, the largest impact crater in the entire solar system at 13 km deep and 2,500 km in diameter.
It is responsible for conducting mineral and radiation studies, in which scientists had the first opportunity to examine materials from the other side of the moon.
The landing spot on the moon of the space shuttle Chang & e-4 is officially & # 39; Statio Tianhe & # 39; or the base of the Milky Way, during a conference in Beijing in February.
The name, along with others for three craters and a nearby peak, was agreed by the China National Space Administration, Chinese Academy of Sciences and the International Astronomical Union.
Naming landing sites on planets is a common practice led by the United States and the former Soviet Union during their explorations in the moon.
The Chinese names refer to ancient folklore, with the term Tianhe meaning the Milky Way, its literal translation is & # 39; sky-river & # 39; in Mandarin.
The Lunar explorer landed at 10.26 a.m. local time (2.26 a.m. GMT). While stationed on the moon, Chang & e-4 will try to find the Von in the Aitken basin, the largest impact crater in the entire solar system at 13 km deep and 1600 km long in diameter
There have been countless moon landings due to the space race between the US and the USSR from the 20th century. After Luna 24 landed on August 18, the next lunar landing was the Chinese mission Chang & # 39; e-3 on December 14, 2013. Chang & # 39; e-4 is the first spacecraft landing on the other side of the moon
The previous spacecraft has seen the other side of the moon, but none landed on it.
Beijing is pouring billions into the military-managed program, hoping to have a manned space station by 2022 and eventually send people to the moon.
The Chang & e-4 lunar probe mission – named after the moon goddess in Chinese mythology – was launched from the southwestern Xichang launch center last December.
It is the second Chinese probe that lands on the moon after the 2013 Yutu rover mission.
China has announced that in honor of this success, the robber on board Chang & e-4 has been named Yutu 2.
WHY DOES THE FAR SIDE OF THE MOON LOOK?
One of the first images to emerge from the Chang & e-4 lunar probe on the dark side of the moon shows a crater and ridge in the background bathed in a reddish hue.
The entire image is tinted in a pink glow, making the surface more like Mars than the moon.
According to Christopher Conselice, professor of astrophysics at the University of Nottingham, this is just a trick of light.
He told MailOnline: & # 39; The appearance of the reddish hue of the lunar probe image is a trick of light.
& # 39; The surface on the other side of the moon is the same color as the near side, but the illumination of the lamp on Chang & e-4 created a glow that changed as it looks.
Professor Conselice compared the image with a lamp in the corner of the room and changes the way the surfaces are perceived.
He also says that the light seems to reach the horizon because of the location of the probe in the Von Karman crater and the proximity of a large ridge that hides the more remote terrain.
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