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A groundbreaking research has shown that members of the great apes, such as bonobos, chimpanzees, and orangutans, have a theory of the mind. This claims, researchers say, that they can understand the mental state of others

A groundbreaking research has shown that members of the great apes, such as bonobos, chimpanzees, and orangutans, have a theory of the mind.

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This, researchers claim, proves that they can understand the mental states of others – a possibility that was previously exclusively reserved for people.

The idea that other animals possess this property has been discussed for decades and researchers from the University of Kyoto think they have proven it.

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A groundbreaking research has shown that members of the great apes, such as bonobos, chimpanzees, and orangutans, have a theory of the mind. This claims, researchers say, that they can understand the mental state of others

A groundbreaking research has shown that members of the great apes, such as bonobos, chimpanzees, and orangutans, have a theory of the mind. This claims, researchers say, that they can understand the mental state of others

WHAT IS THEORY OF THE OPINION?

Theory of the mind is a higher cognitive function that allows individuals to understand the mental states of others.

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The debate about whether a non-human species possesses this capability has lasted for decades.

Theory of the mind is the ability to attribute mental states – such as beliefs, intentions, desires, emotions, and knowledge – to themselves and others.

This capacity is crucial for daily social interactions.

In people, people who lack the ability can suffer from autism, schizophrenia and ADHD.

The study, published in the journal PNAS, reviewed chimpanzees, bonobos & orangutans – our closest relatives.

It turned out that they rely on self-experience to anticipate the actions of others.

Study author Dr. Fumihiro Kano, a primate psychologist at the University of Kyoto in Japan, said: & # 39; The results suggest that we share this ability with our evolutionary cousins. & # 39;

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Theory of the mind is the ability to attribute mental states – such as beliefs, intentions, desires, emotions, and knowledge – to themselves and others.

This capacity is crucial for daily social interactions and appears to be lacking in people with autism, schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

The researchers used eye-tracking technology to follow the gaze of monkeys exposed to different regions, performed by an actor dressed in a King Kong suit.

The monkeys were shown a film that they found exciting and eye-tracking was used to capture gaze patterns that anticipate the behavior of a cop.

They could see if the person made a mistake and anticipate the actions of the agents.

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This also applied when that person had a false belief about reality – one of the strongest proofs he had read in his mind.

Dr. Kano said: & # 39; For close evolutionary family members you could say that we are somewhat similar.

& # 39; And the more we learn about our second cousins, the more we notice that we are alike. & # 39;

Researchers then expanded the study to see how the monkeys coped with a complex test of their cognitive skills.

They conducted a so-called & # 39; trick blindfold test & # 39; with monkeys placed on one side of two barriers.

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One group became a & # 39; real & # 39; barrier, made of an opaque material.

The other received a & # 39; trick & # 39; which appears opaque at a distance but becomes transparent at close range.

The study, published in the journal PNAS, reviewed chimpanzees, bonobos, and orangutans - our closest relatives. It turned out that they rely on self-experience to anticipate the actions of others (stock)

The study, published in the journal PNAS, reviewed chimpanzees, bonobos, and orangutans - our closest relatives. It turned out that they rely on self-experience to anticipate the actions of others (stock)

The study, published in the journal PNAS, reviewed chimpanzees, bonobos, and orangutans – our closest relatives. It turned out that they rely on self-experience to anticipate the actions of others (stock)

Both groups of monkeys then watched the same video in which one person hides behind the barrier while another object moves in front of it.

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This barrier is similar in appearance to that of the monkeys.

It gave the monkeys the mental dilemma to predict where the person would go.

The team noted that with the opaque barrier, the monkeys expected the agent to go to the location the agent last saw.

Conversely, the trick barrier monkeys expected that the agent would not go to either location because the object had been completely removed.

The apes were able to draw the right conclusions – to exclude a purely behavioral explanation.

The two groups anticipated behavior based on their own experiences with the barriers – even when both had perceived the individual in the same way.

Dr. Kano said: & # 39; We are delighted that there are large monkeys that have passed this difficult test. & # 39;

& # 39; We intend to continue to refine our methods to test further non-mentalistic alternatives to the theory of mind in non-human animals. & # 39;

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