The ancestors of modern birds who lived in Canada 75 million years ago became warm-blooded very early in their evolution, revealed a study of eggshells of dinosaurs.
Experts from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Yale University studied the chemical bonds of the dishes to find the body temperature of the animal inside.
They wanted to discover exactly when the cold-blooded dinosaur began to get warmer blood and eventually evolved into modern birds.
The team discovered that the four different types of dinosaurs in the evolutionary timeline to become birds could regulate their own temperature.
Experts from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Yale University studied the chemical compounds of the shells in the photo to find the body temperature of the animal that laid them
The dinosaurs had an internal temperature range of 95 to about 104 degrees Fahrenheit, comparable to modern birds, the study found.
By researching fossils from Canada instead of the equator, as other studies have done, the team says they could get a better idea of the internal temperature.
Professor Hagit Affek of the Institute of Earth Science of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem says that species at the equator will be hot due to external temperatures.
Those in Canada and further north should have reached those temperatures by being able to control their own heat, she said.
From the moment dinosaur fossils were first discovered, these creatures have fascinated both scientists and laymen.
A mystery that had confused researchers for decades was how dinosaurs regulated their body temperature and whether they were warm or cold-blooded.
The new study, published in the journal Science Advances, uses a new method to measure historical temperatures.
It is a technique called clotted isotope geochemistry, this method analyzes chemical bonds between heavy isotopes in calcium carbonate minerals.
This allows scientists to calculate both the temperature at which the minerals are formed and the body temperature of the mother who laid the egg.
The team applied this method to fossilized eggs from three different dinosaur species that are on the evolutionary path from reptile to bird.
The dinosaurs, roaming in this area of Alberta, Canada, had an internal temperature range of 95 to about 104 degrees Fahrenheit, similar to modern birds, the study found
“The world climate during the dinosaur age was considerably warmer than it is now,” Dr. said. Affek.
“For this reason, measuring only the body temperatures of dinosaurs who lived near the equator would not say whether they were endo- or exothermic.
“This is because their body temperature may just have been a cold-blooded reaction to the warm climates in which they lived.”
They investigated fossils ranging from sauropods with long necks, theropods with three toes and ornithischians with birds.
They also analyzed a 69 million-year-old eggshell from Romania that possibly belonged to a “dwarf” titanosaurus.
To address this issue, her team focused on dinosaurs living on large latitudes, such as Alberta, Canada – far enough north to ensure that their warm body temperatures were the result of an internal metabolic warming process.
Professor Hagit Affek and her team used a technique called cloned isotope geochemistry, this method analyzes chemical bonds between heavy isotopes in calcium carbonate minerals
The team wanted to determine the ambient temperature in Alberta 75 million years ago and applied its isotope method to cold-blooded molluscs.
The creations reflect the ambient temperatures around them and researchers discovered that it would have been around 79 degrees Fahrenheit.
This proved that the dinosaurs they were investigating had to be endo-thermal or that they would not have been able to maintain the body temperature from 95 to 104F.
As dinosaurs evolved, they moved from lizard-like (cold-blooded) characteristics to birds (warm-blooded).
“We believe this transformation occurred very early in the evolution of dinosaurs,” Affek said.
“The Mayasaura eggs – a lizard-like dinosaur species we tested – could control their body temperature themselves, just like their warm-blooded, bird-like cousins, the Torrdons.”
The fact that both species, located at opposite ends of the dinosaur’s evolutionary tree, had body temperatures higher than those of their environment means that both had the capacity to warm themselves up.
WHAT IS BIODIVERSITY?
Biodiversity is the diversity of life on earth.
It includes diversity, the number of species of plants and animals, the genetic diversity within and between these species and the various biomes and ecosystems to which they belong.
These ecosystems can include the rainforest, tundra and desert
Biodiversity also includes the diversity within microscopic organisms, including bacteria, viruses and fungi.
What influence does biodiversity have on us?
Biodiversity provides our food directly or through pollination, medical discoveries and ecosystem services.
The latter include everything from cleaning water and absorbing chemicals, what wetlands do, to providing oxygen for us to breathe.
Threats to biodiversity
Earth’s biodiversity is declining as a result of activities such as deforestation, land use change, intensification of agriculture, over-consumption of natural resources, pollution and climate change.
Some scientists believe there is sufficient evidence to confirm that we are in the sixth massive extinction of the earth.
This is where a large loss of 75% of the species occurs over a relatively short geological period of two million years.
There have been five mass extinctions so far, perhaps the most famous being the loss of the dinosaurs caused by the asteroid
But this current mass extinction is different because it is caused by people.